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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
 (Mark One)
ý
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36131
 
 
 
Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
 
Delaware
46-3044956
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
10 Corporate Drive, Suite 300
Burlington, Massachusetts
01803
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip code)
(781) 852-3200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
The NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)
Large accelerated filer
¨
 
Accelerated filer
ý
Non-accelerated filer
¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2017, was $515,396,394.
As of February 20, 2018 there were 141,618,231 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE


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Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which the registrant intends to file pursuant to Regulation 14A with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
PART I.
 
PART II.
 
PART III.
 
PART IV.
 


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “may,” “believe,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “could,” “should,” “contemplate,” “can,” “estimate,” “intend,” “likely,” “would,” “project,” “seek,” “target,” “might,” “plan,” “strategy,” “expect,” and similar expressions or variations are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes, among other things, forward-looking statements regarding our future results, growth and financial position, including, without limitation, statements about:
our plans in 2018 to make investments across our business to enhance our product capabilities and user experience, and to simplify and integrate our operations;
the anticipated results of such investments;
expected decreases in our total subscriber count for 2018 and thereafter, and the factors driving such expected decreases;
our planned approach to defending certain legal proceedings;
trends in cost of revenue and gross profit;
the impact on us of tax reform and new and recent accounting pronouncements; and
competition.
These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make as a result of a number of important factors. These important factors include our “critical accounting policies and estimates” described in Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” and the factors set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any settlements of pending legal proceedings or any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.
Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, and we expressly disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of any new information, events, circumstances or otherwise.
As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Endurance,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” mean Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

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Part I
 
Item 1.
Business
We are a leading provider of cloud-based platform solutions designed to help small- and medium-sized businesses, or SMBs, succeed online. We serve approximately 5.051 million subscribers globally with a range of products and services that help SMBs get online, get found and grow their businesses.
All of our products and services fall into one of our three reportable segments, as follows:
Web Presence. Our web presence segment consists primarily of our web hosting brands, such as Bluehost and HostGator, and related products such as domain names, website security, website design tools and services, and e-commerce products.
Domain. Our domain segment consists of domain-focused brands such as Domain.com, ResellerClub and LogicBoxes as well as certain web hosting brands that are under common management with our domain-focused brands. This segment sells domain names and domain management services to resellers and end users, as well as premium domain names, and also generates advertising revenue from domain name parking. It also resells domain names and domain management services to our web presence segment.
Email Marketing. Our email marketing segment consists of Constant Contact email marketing tools and related products and our SinglePlatform digital storefront solution.

Additional information about our reportable segments is set forth in Note 20 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our Market, Products and Services
SMBs represent a large and diverse market, both in the United States and internationally. According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, there were approximately 29.6 million small businesses in the United States in 2014. Of these small businesses, approximately 23.8 million were non-employer firms, or companies that do not have paid employees. In addition, a 2010 study by the International Finance Corporation and McKinsey & Company estimates that there are more than 420 million micro, small and medium enterprises (defined as one to 250 employees) worldwide.
Many SMBs have limited technological and marketing expertise, time and financial resources. However, we believe SMBs understand that the Internet and the proliferation of mobile devices are changing the way consumers discover and transact with businesses, making an effective online presence critical.
Our offerings, which consist of both proprietary applications and third-party products, can be broadly grouped as follows: products that get SMBs online by providing an easy and cost-effective way to create an online presence; marketing solutions that help SMBs get found by increasing their online visibility and building customer loyalty; and services and applications such as dedicated processing power, collaboration tools and secure online payment services that help SMBs grow their business.
Getting SMBs Online:
Web Hosting and Builders. By providing a set of core products that combine storage, bandwidth and processing power, our entry-level shared hosting services enable subscribers to create an initial web presence quickly and cost-effectively. Our website building tools enable subscribers with varying degrees of technical sophistication to create a customized web presence. We also offer various premium elements that subscribers can purchase separately to enhance their website and provide a more engaging user experience for their customers, including mobile optimization, social networking features, customer interaction tools, embedded videos, photo galleries, blogs, maps, polls and community forums.
Domain Registration, Management and Resale. As an accredited domain registrar with approximately 12.9 million domains under management at December 31, 2017, we enable our subscribers to search and purchase available domain names from a wide spectrum of domain registries. We also maintain a portfolio of premium domains that are available for resale.
Security. We offer malware protection solutions to help protect our subscribers’ websites from viruses, malicious code and other threats. Our offerings, including a web application firewall, can help prevent attacks on subscriber

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websites before they affect subscriber data or operations. For subscribers that collect personally identifiable information or other private data from their customers and website visitors, we offer Secure Socket Layer, or SSL, certificates that encrypt data collected on a subscriber’s website.
Site Back-Up. We offer backup control solutions that enable subscribers to schedule, maintain, manage and restore backups of their online data and websites.
Getting SMBs Found:
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Search Engine Marketing (SEM). We offer a variety of search engine optimization and marketing solutions that can improve a subscriber’s ability to be discovered by potential customers. These services help a subscriber distribute its business profile to online directories and manage links and keywords with on-page diagnostic tools. We also offer pay-per-click (PPC) services designed to direct traffic to a subscriber’s website.
Mobile. We offer solutions that allow our subscribers to have their websites rendered on mobile devices and target mobile customers for their businesses, among other features and functionality. Our website builder solutions offer mobile-ready templates, which enable small businesses to ensure that their websites render well on desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones.
Social Media. We offer tools and services that enable our subscribers to communicate effectively with their customers and potential customers through social networks.
Analytics. We offer control panels and dashboards that provide our subscribers with tools to analyze activity on their websites.
Helping SMBs Grow:
Email Marketing. Our email marketing solution allows small businesses and other organizations to easily create, send and track professional-looking email campaigns, allowing them to communicate effectively with their customers and potential customers via email. Email marketing services available to subscribers include building and segmenting mailing lists, designing and managing email newsletters, coupons, scheduling and sending email messages, and reporting and tracking the results of each campaign. We offer our email marketing solution on a stand-alone basis through our Constant Contact brand, and through bundled offerings that combine email marketing with other marketing offerings, including managing events online, conducting surveys and getting feedback, and marketing automation capabilities.
Advanced Web Hosting. In addition to providing shared hosting services, we also provide VPS hosting and dedicated hosting solutions. As a subscriber’s business expands and the demands on its website increase, these more customizable and higher performance solutions allow our subscribers to build additional functionality into their websites, offer high bandwidth content and drive more commerce and marketing activities while reducing load times and increasing site speeds. Subscribers can start with an advanced web hosting solution or upgrade from an existing shared hosting service.
Productivity Solutions. We offer our subscribers email capabilities, including custom mailboxes that reflect a subscriber’s domain name, spam filters, email aliases and forwarding functionality. Our communications tools also allow a subscriber to unify its email inbox with other communications streams, such as social media feeds. We also offer our customers an integrated suite of email, collaboration, and file sharing tools.
E-commerce Enablement. As our subscribers grow their businesses and their need for e-commerce tools increases, we offer products that enable secure and encrypted payments, shopping carts, payment processing and related services and mobile payments.
Professional Services. We offer professional services and web design for subscribers who want a professionally created web presence.
SinglePlatform. Our SinglePlatform solution provides local businesses the ability to create and manage digital storefront listings and extend their online reach through one interface. The digital storefront, which may include menus, photos, services, offers and featured products, is distributed online across over 100 online publishers, including numerous websites, social networks, directories, and mobile applications such as Yelp, Urbanspoon, Foursquare, YellowPages, TripAdvisor and others.

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Sales & Marketing
For our web presence segment, the majority of our program marketing expense is associated with targeted online search marketing, including for inclusion of our brands in online directories, and with payments to our large network of referral partners, who drive subscribers to us on a paid referral basis. Payments to our referral partners primarily occur after a subscriber signs up on our platform and therefore allow us to readily determine the returns on our marketing spend. We also attract new subscribers through word-of-mouth referrals and through partnerships that help us reach additional subscribers, such as our partnerships with Google and WordPress.
For our domain segment, we use a combination of online search marketing and a network of referral partners, as well as joint marketing efforts with registries of various generic top level domain names, such as ".com", aimed at increasing subscribers.

For our email marketing segment, we market our products and acquire our customers through a variety of sources, including online marketing, such as search engines and advertising with online networks and other websites, offline marketing through television and radio advertising, partner relationships, outbound sales efforts, referrals from our customer base, general brand awareness and a link to our website in the footer of substantially all of the emails sent by our customers. We have partner relationships with over 10,000 local and national small business service providers. These partners refer customers to us through links on their websites and outbound promotions to their customers or allow us to market to their customers directly. Our television and radio advertising is designed to educate potential customers about our email marketing solutions and raise awareness of our brand.
Subscriber Support

Our support agents assist our subscribers via phone, email, chat and social media. Our support personnel not only assist subscribers with technical issues, but also focus on understanding the business goals of each subscriber to help identify the right products and services to achieve those goals. Our primary support centers are located in Arizona, Colorado, Massachusetts, Texas, Brazil and India. In addition, we have third-party support arrangements in India, China and the Philippines.
Technology Platform and Infrastructure
Web Presence and Domain Segments
The technology platforms supporting our web presence and domain segments combine open source and proprietary software, and are based on a scalable architecture that allows us to operate with a large number of subscribers per server. In addition, we use subscriber relationship management, billing and subscriber service support systems to on-board, serve and track our web presence subscribers, and to enable them to manage their own service experience. We currently serve most of our web presence and domain subscribers from five U.S.-based data centers, one of which is owned by us and the rest of which are co-located.
Email Marketing Segment

For our email marketing segment, we use a central application and a single software code base with unique accounts for each subscriber, except for SinglePlatform, which operates on a separate code base. As a result, we are able to spread the cost of providing our products across our email marketing customer base. In addition, because we have one central application, we believe we are able to scale our business to meet increases in demand for our products. We own all of the hardware deployed in support of our platform, except for SinglePlatform, which operates on a third party’s infrastructure. Our production system hardware and the disaster recovery hardware for our production system, with the exception of SinglePlatform, are co-located in third-party hosting facilities in Massachusetts and Texas.
Engineering and Development
Our engineering and development activity is focused on maintaining and enhancing our systems, improving and expanding product and service offerings, and developing new features and offerings, as well as integrating technology capabilities from our acquisitions. Our engineering and development expense during 2015, 2016 and 2017 was $26.7 million, $87.6 million and $78.8 million, respectively, or approximately 3.6%, 7.9% and 6.7% of revenue, respectively.

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Subscriber Profile
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately 5.051 million subscribers, of which approximately 3.849 million were web presence subscribers, 0.683 million were domain segment subscribers and 0.519 million were email marketing segment subscribers. Based on data from a 2015 survey of subscribers of major brands in our web presence segment, we believe a majority of our web presence subscribers are SMBs, most of whom are businesses with five or fewer employees. We estimate that approximately 80% of subscribers of our email marketing segment employ 25 or fewer employees.

The industries in which our subscribers operate are very diverse, including retail, restaurants, professional services, non-profits, merchandising, media, recreation, education, construction, health, beauty and wellness, and arts and entertainment, among others.
Geographical Information

We currently maintain offices and conduct operations primarily in the United States, Brazil, India, and the Netherlands. We also have third-party support arrangements in India, China and the Philippines.

Information about the geographic location of our long-lived assets and revenue is set forth in Note 21 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Competition

The global cloud-based services market for SMBs is highly competitive and constantly evolving. For our web presence and domain segments, we expect continued competition, both domestically and internationally, from a number of sources, including: competitors in the domain, hosting and website builder markets such as GoDaddy, 1 and 1, Wix, Squarespace, Weebly, Web.com, and Wordpress.com; large companies like Amazon, Microsoft and Google, which offer web hosting or website builders, domain registration and other cloud-based services; and eBay and Facebook, which offer Internet marketing platforms. For our email marketing segment, we expect continued competition from MailChimp and other SMB-focused lower-cost email marketing vendors, as well as additional competition from larger companies such as Microsoft. In some instances, we have commercial partnerships with companies with which we also compete.
We believe the principal competitive factors in the cloud-based services market for SMBs include: ease of use and effectiveness; product functionality, performance and reliability; customer service and support; integrated solutions; brand
awareness and reputation; affordability; and product scalability. See "Risk Factors" for additional discussion of competition as it pertains to our business.
Seasonality
Our web presence segment has historically experienced increased subscriber billings in the first quarter of our fiscal year as many subscribers start businesses at the beginning of a new year. This segment records a significant portion of these billings as deferred revenue and recognizes the deferred revenue throughout the course of the year and beyond based on the term of the applicable subscription. This slight seasonality has a favorable impact on our operating cash flows in the early part of each fiscal year, and an unfavorable impact in the latter part of each fiscal year. We expect that this seasonality will continue.

Intellectual Property and Proprietary Rights
Our intellectual property and proprietary rights are important to our business. We rely on a combination of trademark, patent, copyright and trade secret laws, and confidentiality and other contractual provisions to protect our proprietary technologies, confidential information, brands and other intellectual property.
We use open source technologies pursuant to applicable licenses as the basis for our technology platform. We have also developed, acquired or licensed proprietary technologies for use in our business. As of January 17, 2018, we have fifteen U.S. patents as well as five pending U.S. patent applications and several pending foreign counterpart applications relating to aspects of our technology platform and offerings, including our shared services architecture, predictive analytics methods, virtualization technologies, subscriber migration technologies, web presence improvement technologies, and email composition and editing technologies. We believe the duration of our patents is adequate relative to the expected lives of the technologies they cover.

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We have an ongoing trademark and service mark registration program pursuant to which we register our brand names and product names, taglines and logos in the United States and other countries to the extent we determine appropriate and cost-effective. We also have common law rights in some unregistered trademarks that were established through years of use. In addition, we have a trademark and service mark enforcement program pursuant to which we monitor applications filed by third parties to register trademarks and service marks that may be confusingly similar to ours.
We have non-disclosure, confidentiality and license agreements with employees, contractors, subscribers and other third parties, which limit access to and use of our proprietary information; however, unauthorized disclosure of our confidential information or proprietary technologies by our employees or third parties could still occur. In addition, unauthorized third parties may attempt to copy, reverse engineer or otherwise obtain access to our proprietary rights. The risk of unauthorized use of our proprietary and intellectual property rights may increase as we expand outside of the United States.
Third-party infringement claims are also possible in our industry, especially as functionality and features expand, evolve and overlap across industries. Third parties, including non-practicing patent holders, have claimed, and could claim in the future, that our processes, technologies or websites infringe patents they now hold or might obtain or that might be issued in the future. See “Risk Factors" for additional discussion about the substantial costs that we could incur as a result of any claim of infringement of another party’s intellectual property rights.
Employees
As of December 31, 2017, we had 3,664 employees, including 2,049 in support and network operations, 695 in sales and marketing, 517 in engineering and development, and 403 in general and administrative. Excluded from our employee figures are approximately 1,300 individuals primarily located in India and the Philippines who are directly employed by third parties and perform a range of services for us, including email- and chat-based customer and technical support, billing support, network monitoring and engineering and development services. Most of our employees are based in the United States. None of our employees is represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have never experienced a strike or similar work stoppage, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Corporate Information
Our business was founded in 1997 as a Delaware corporation under the name Innovative Marketing Technologies Incorporated. In December 2011, investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or Goldman, Sachs & Co. acquired a controlling interest in our company. Prior to our initial public offering, or IPO, in October 2013, we were an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of WP Expedition Topco L.P., a Delaware limited partnership that we refer to as WP Expedition Topco. Pursuant to the terms of a corporate reorganization that we completed prior to our IPO, WP Expedition Topco dissolved and in liquidation distributed the shares of common stock of Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. to its partners in accordance with the limited partnership agreement of WP Expedition Topco. We have completed numerous acquisitions since inception, including the acquisition of Constant Contact, Inc. in February 2016.
Our principal executive offices are located at 10 Corporate Drive, Suite 300, Burlington, Massachusetts 01803 and our telephone number at that address is (781) 852-3200.
Information Available on the Internet
We maintain an Internet website at www.endurance.com, and we also operate a number of other websites. The information on, or that can be accessed through, any of our websites is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our website address is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as inactive textual reference only. Our reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, are accessible through our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are filed electronically with, or otherwise furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. We also make available on our website the charters of our audit committee, compensation committee and nominating and corporate governance committee, as well as our corporate governance guidelines and our code of business conduct and ethics. In addition, we intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct and ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to SEC rules.

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ITEM 1A.
Risk Factors
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected by the following risks or uncertainties. The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we have identified as material, but they are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Our business is also subject to general risks and uncertainties that affect many other companies, including overall economic and industry conditions, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. If any of such risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
We may not be able to add new subscribers, retain existing subscribers or increase sales to existing subscribers, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Our growth is dependent on our ability to continue to attract and acquire new subscribers while retaining existing subscribers and expanding the products and services we sell to them. Growth in the demand for our products and services may be inhibited, and we may be unable to grow our subscriber base, for a number of reasons, including, but not limited to:
our failure to develop or offer new or enhanced products and services in a timely manner that keeps pace with new technologies, competitor offerings and the evolving needs of our subscribers;
difficulties providing or maintaining a high level of subscriber satisfaction, which could cause our existing subscribers to cancel their subscriptions or stop referring prospective subscribers to us;
increases in our subscriber churn rates or our failure to convert subscribers from introductory, discounted products to full priced solutions;
perceived or actual security, availability, integrity, reliability, quality or compatibility problems with our solutions, including related to unscheduled downtime, outages or network security breaches;
our inability to maintain awareness of our brands, including due to fragmentation of our marketing efforts due to our historical approach of maintaining a portfolio of multiple brands rather than focusing our resources on a single brand or a few brands;
continued or increased competition in the SMB market, including greater marketing efforts or investments by our competitors in advertising and promoting their brands or in product development;
changes in search engine ranking algorithms or in search terms used by potential subscribers;
our inability to market our solutions in a cost-effective manner to new subscribers or to our existing subscribers due to changes in regulation, or changes in the enforcement of existing regulation, that would affect our marketing practices.
Our total subscriber base decreased during the year ended December 31, 2017 and we expect that it will continue to decrease for the foreseeable future. Key factors contributing to the decrease in our subscriber base are are discussed in “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” If we are not successful in addressing these factors or the other factors listed above, we may not be able to return to or maintain positive subscriber growth in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We must keep up with rapid and ongoing technological change, marketing trends and shifts in consumer demand to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving industry.
The cloud-based technology and online marketing tool industries are characterized by rapid and ongoing technological change, frequent new product and service introductions and evolving industry standards. The manner in which we market to our subscribers and potential subscribers must keep pace with technological change, legal requirements, market trends, and shifts in how our solutions are found, purchased and used by subscribers. For example, application marketplaces, mobile platforms, advertising and marketing efforts by competitors, and new search engines and search methods are changing the way consumers find, purchase and use our solutions. Our future success will depend on our ability to adapt to rapidly changing technologies, to adapt our solutions and marketing practices to evolving industry standards and to anticipate subscriber needs and preferences. If we are not able to offer compelling and innovative solutions, take advantage of new technology, make our products effective for access and use on mobile devices, adapt our marketing practices or anticipate changing trends, we may be unable to continue to attract new subscribers or sell additional solutions to our existing subscribers. In addition, if existing technologies or systems, such as the domain name system which directs traffic on the Internet, become obsolete, or if we fail to anticipate and manage technologies that prevent or harm our offerings, such as technology intended to block email marketing, our revenue and operating results may be adversely affected.
We face significant competition for our solutions in the SMB market, which we expect will continue to intensify. As a result of such competitive pressures, we may not be able to maintain or improve our competitive position or market share.

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The SMB market for cloud-based technologies and online marketing tools is highly competitive and constantly evolving. We expect competition to increase from existing competitors as well as potential new market entrants. Some of our competitors have greater marketing, engineering, product development and other resources, more brand recognition and consumer awareness, more diversified or better integrated product offerings, greater international scope or larger subscriber bases than we do, or may partner with large Internet companies that can offer these resources. As a result, we may not be able to compete successfully against them.
We have faced and expect to continue to face competition in our web presence and domain segments, both domestically and internationally, from competitors in the domain, hosting and website builder markets such as GoDaddy, 1 and 1, Wix, Squarespace, Weebly, Web.com and Wordpress.com, as well as from large companies like Amazon, Microsoft and Google, which offer web hosting or website builders, domain registration and other cloud-based services, and eBay and Facebook, which offer Internet marketing platforms. For our email marketing segment, we expect continued competition from MailChimp and other SMB-focused lower-cost email marketing vendors, as well as additional competition from larger companies such as Microsoft.
We believe that our business has been, and may continue to be, affected by changes in the behavior of consumers when searching for web presence and marketing solutions. In particular, consumers have increasingly been searching for these solutions using brand related search terms as opposed to unbranded search terms, such as hosting, website builders or email marketing. We believe this trend has benefited competitors who have invested more heavily in, and used a broader array of marketing channels in, building consumer awareness of their brand than we have. In addition, searches for specific products such as “cloud hosting,” “social media marketing,” and “e-commerce,” are growing, which we believe has benefited competitors who market more heavily in these and other specific product areas.
There are also relatively few barriers to entry in this market, especially for providers of niche services, which often have low capital and operating expenses and the ability to quickly bring products that meet specific subscriber needs to market. Accordingly, as this market continues to develop, the number of competitors may increase. The continued entry of competitors into the markets for cloud-based technologies and online marketing tools, and the rapid growth of some competitors that have already entered these markets, have made and may continue to make it difficult for us to maintain our market position.
In addition, in an attempt to gain market share, competitors have and may continue to offer more aggressive price discounts or alternative pricing models, such as “freemium” pricing in which a basic offering is provided for free with advanced features provided for a fee, on the services they offer, bundle several services at reduced prices, or increase commissions paid to their referral sources. These pricing pressures have in the past required and may continue to require us to match these discounts and commissions in order to remain competitive, which could reduce our margins or cause us to fail to attract new subscribers that decide to purchase the discounted service offerings of our competitors.
Our business and operations have become increasingly complex over the past several years due to acquisitions and organizational change, which has and may continue to result in operational and other challenges.
As a result of acquisitions and internal growth, we increased our revenue from $629.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 to $1.2 billion in the year ended December 31, 2017. During this time period, we completed numerous acquisitions, including the acquisition of the Directi web presence business in January 2014, which significantly expanded our international operations, and the acquisition of Constant Contact in February 2016.
Due to our history of acquisitions, we offer our products and services through numerous brands that operate from different control panels, billing systems, information technology and other systems. As a result, compliance assessments, compliance-related changes, and roll-outs of new products and product upgrades often need to be implemented more than once. This level of complexity has sometimes resulted and may continue to result in difficulties maintaining effective internal controls, additional compliance costs and risks, product roll-out inefficiencies, and other operational challenges.
In particular, differences across our multiple billing systems have at times made it challenging for us to accurately and consistently determine certain enterprise-wide operational metrics, such as total subscribers. Total subscribers and other operational metrics, which we voluntarily disclose, historically have not been subject to the same level of reporting controls as our financial statements and other financial information we are required to disclose. Also, we have identified in the past, and may in the future identify, errors or bugs in the systems we use to generate operational metrics. We are working to improve our controls and processes for total subscribers and other operational metrics, but errors with respect to these metrics could still occur. Any errors, delays, inconsistencies in data reporting, or similar challenges could negatively impact our business decisions or lead to inaccurate disclosure, which could harm our operating results, our ability to operate our business and our investors’ view of us.
In 2018, we plan to make significant investments to improve our customer experience and integrate our business. Although we believe that these investments will position us for growth in the future, we will recognize most of the costs associated with these investments earlier than most of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be

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lower or may develop more slowly than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, if we are otherwise not successful in simplifying our business or in managing our complexity effectively, our operating results may be negatively affected.
Our growth will be adversely affected if we cannot continue to successfully retain, hire, train and manage our key employees.
Our ability to successfully pursue our growth strategy will depend on our ability to attract, retain and motivate key employees across our business, particularly engineering and development employees and our senior executive team.
Our engineering and development team has undergone several management transitions and a significant amount of organizational change in recent years. These changes, combined with high demand from other technology companies for skilled engineering and technical employees, may make it more challenging to retain key employees or hire replacements if they leave. In addition, candidates making employment decisions, particularly in high-technology industries, often consider the value of any equity they may receive from prospective employers. As a result, any significant volatility in the market price of our common stock, or concerns by potential employees about the performance of our stock, may also contribute to these challenges.
We are also limited in our ability to recruit global talent for our U.S. offices by U.S. immigration laws, and the regulatory environment related to immigration under the current presidential administration may increase the likelihood that immigration laws may be modified in a way that further limits our ability to recruit globally.
Our current executives are not contractually obligated to remain employed by us and may leave at any time. The loss of any of these individuals could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of, or make it more difficult for us to pursue and execute on, our business objectives.
Our inability to attract and retain qualified individuals could have an adverse effect on our ability to carry out our business plans and objectives and, as a result, our ability to compete could decrease and our operating results could suffer.
We have experienced system, software, Internet, data center and customer support center failures and have not yet implemented a complete disaster recovery plan or a business continuity plan, and any interruptions, delays or failures in our services could harm our reputation, cause us to lose subscribers, or result in unanticipated costs.
We must be able to maintain and operate our applications and systems without interruption. Since our ability to retain and attract subscribers depends on the performance, reliability and availability of our services, as well as in the delivery of our products and services to subscribers, even minor interruptions in our service or losses of data could harm our reputation, particularly if they frequently reoccur. Our applications, network, systems, equipment, power supplies, customer support centers and data centers are subject to various points of failure, including: human error or accidents; improper maintenance; Internet connectivity downtime; computer viruses; physical or electronic security breaches; intentional bad acts such as sabotage, vandalism or terrorism; and natural disasters.
We have experienced system failures, delays and periodic interruptions in service, or outages, due to factors such as power outages and network equipment, storage system, and network configuration failures. In addition, we have experienced outages in the course of ongoing maintenance or when new versions, enhancements and updates to applications, software or systems are released by us or third parties. We may experience future outages that disrupt the operation of our solutions due to these or other factors.
Our systems supporting our web presence and domain segments are not fully redundant, and we have not yet implemented a complete disaster recovery plan or a business continuity plan. Although the redundancies we do have in place will permit us to respond, at least to some degree, to failures of applications and systems, our data centers are vulnerable in the event of failure. Most of our web presence subscribers are hosted across five U.S.-based data centers, one of which is owned by us and the rest of which are co-located, and accordingly, any failure or downtime in these data center facilities would affect a significant percentage of our subscribers. While we have a disaster recovery system that covers most of our email marketing subscribers, this system may not be able to recover all data and services in the event of a significant outage. We do not yet have adequate structures or systems in place to recover from a data center’s severe impairment or total destruction, and recovery from the total destruction or severe impairment of any of our major data centers would be extremely difficult and may not be possible at all. Closing any of these data centers without adequate notice could result in lengthy, if not permanent, interruptions in the availability of our solutions and loss of vast amounts of subscriber data.
Our data centers are also susceptible to impairment resulting from electrical power outages due to the amount of power and cooling they require to operate. Since we rely on third parties to provide our data centers with power sufficient to meet our needs, we cannot control whether our data centers will have an adequate amount of electrical resources necessary to meet our subscriber requirements. We attempt to limit exposure to system downtime due to power outages by using backup generators and power supplies. However, these protections may not limit our exposure to power shortages or outages entirely. We also rely

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on third parties to provide Internet connectivity to our data centers. If the connectivity these parties provide is discontinued, disrupted, or does not provide adequate data transmission capacity, our ability to provide services to our subscribers could be compromised.
Our customer support centers are also vulnerable in the event of failure caused by total destruction or severe impairment. The teams in each customer support center are trained to provide brand-specific support services for a discrete subset of our brands, which, along with staffing constraints and differences in software systems between our brands, limits our ability to re-route calls, email and chat from one customer support center to another customer support center. Accordingly, if any of our customer support centers (particularly one of our primary support centers, such as our Arizona, Colorado, Massachusetts or Texas centers or our third-party India center) were to be impaired or destroyed, our ability to re-route calls, email and chat to operational customer support centers or to provide the type of customer support services that the non-operational customer support center had provided to subscribers of a particular brand or brands may be limited.
Any of these events could materially increase our expenses or reduce our revenue, damage our reputation, cause our subscribers to seek reimbursement for services paid for and not received, cause our subscribers to stop referring new subscribers to us, and cause us to lose current and potential subscribers, which would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Moreover, the property and business interruption insurance we carry may not have adequate coverage to compensate us fully for losses that may occur.
If we are unable to achieve or maintain a high level of subscriber satisfaction, demand for our solutions could suffer.
We believe that our future revenue growth depends on our ability to provide subscribers with quality service that meets our stated commitments, meets or exceeds our subscribers’ evolving needs and expectations and is conducive to our ability to continue to sell new solutions to existing subscribers. We are not always able to provide our subscribers with this level of service, and our subscribers occasionally encounter interruptions in service and other technical challenges, including as a result of outages, errors or bugs in our software or third-party software, human error, or migrations of subscribers as part of internal platform consolidation efforts. If we are unable to achieve or maintain a high level of subscriber satisfaction, we could experience higher subscriber churn, lower than expected renewal rates, disputes and litigation, or negative publicity, any of which could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, we may from time to time fail to meet the needs of specific subscribers in order to best meet the service expectations of our overall subscriber base. For example, we may suspend a subscriber’s website when it breaches our terms of service, harms other subscribers’ websites or disrupts servers supporting those websites, such as when a cybercriminal installs malware on a subscriber’s website without that subscriber’s authorization or knowledge. Although such service interruptions are not uncommon in a cloud-based or online environment, we risk subscriber dissatisfaction by interrupting one subscriber’s service to prevent further attacks on or data breaches for other subscribers, and this could damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business.
Security and privacy incidents or fraud may harm our business.
We collect, handle, store and transmit large amounts of sensitive, confidential, personal and proprietary information, including payment card information. Unauthorized access to, use of, or loss of this type of information may cause damage to our platforms, service interruptions to our subscribers, harm our reputation and result in increased security costs, litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities. These type of incidents can result from numerous sources, including: physical or electronic security breaches; viruses, ransomware or other malware; hardware vulnerabilities such as Meltdown and Spectre; accident or human error by our own personnel or those of our partners; criminal activity or malfeasance (including by our own personnel); fraud or impersonation scams perpetrated against us; or security events impacting our third-party service providers. We have experienced security events such as these in the past and expect they will continue in the future. To date, we do not believe that any of these events has had a material effect on us, but we may experience larger and more serious incidents in the future.
In addition, many states and countries in which we have subscribers have enacted regulations requiring us to notify subscribers in the event that certain subscriber information is accessed or acquired, or believed to have been accessed or acquired, without authorization, and in some cases also develop proscriptive policies to protect against such unauthorized access or acquisition. Such notifications can result in private causes of action being filed against us, or government investigations into the adequacy of security controls or handling of any security event. Should we experience a loss of protected data, efforts to respond to the incident and enhance our controls, as well as potential penalties imposed by regulators, could increase our costs.
Organizations generally, and Internet-based organizations in particular, remain vulnerable to targeted attacks aimed at exploiting network and system applications or weaknesses. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage, networks and systems often are not recognized until launched against a target. Cyber criminals are increasingly using powerful new tactics including evasive applications, proxies, tunneling, encryption techniques, vulnerability exploits, buffer overflows,

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distributed denial of service attacks, or DDoS attacks, botnets and port scans. For example, we are frequently the targets of DDoS attacks in which attackers attempt to block access to our websites or our subscribers' websites, as well as attempts to place illegal or abusive content on our or our subscribers' websites. If we are unable to avert a DDoS or other attack for any significant period, we could sustain substantial revenue loss from lost sales and subscriber dissatisfaction. We may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber-attacks. Moreover, we may not be able to immediately detect that such an attack has been launched, if, for example, unauthorized access to our systems was obtained without our knowledge in preparation for an attack contemplated to commence in the future. Cyber-attacks may target us, our subscribers, our partners, banks, credit card processors, delivery services, e-commerce in general or the communication infrastructure on which we depend. We also rely on third parties to provide physical security for most of our data centers and other facilities. Any physical security breach to our data centers or other facilities could result in unauthorized access or damage to our systems.
Our employees, including our employee and contract support agents are often targeted by, and may be vulnerable to, e-mail scams, phishing, social media or similar attacks, as well as social engineering tactics used to perpetrate fraud. We have experienced and may in the future experience security attacks that cause our support agents to divulge confidential information about us or our subscribers, or to introduce viruses, worms or other malicious software programs onto their computers, allowing the perpetrators to, among other things, gain access to our systems or our subscribers’ accounts. Our subscribers have in the past, and may in the future, use weak passwords, accidentally disclose their passwords or store them on a mobile device that is lost or stolen, or otherwise compromise the security of their data, creating the perception that our systems are not secure against third-party access when their accounts are compromised and used maliciously by third parties. In addition, if third parties with which we work, such as vendors, partners or developers, violate applicable laws or our policies or disclose our confidential information due to human error or technical issues, such violations or incidents may also put our information and our subscribers’ information at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business and reputation.
If an actual or perceived security breach occurs, the market’s perception of our security measures could be harmed and we could lose sales and current and potential subscribers. We might also be required to expend significant capital and resources to investigate, protect against or address these problems. Any significant violations of data security could result in the loss of business, litigation and regulatory investigations and penalties that could damage our reputation and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, if a high profile security breach occurs with respect to another provider of cloud-based technologies or online marketing tools, our subscribers and potential subscribers may lose trust in the security of these business models generally, which could harm our ability to retain existing subscribers or attract new ones. We cannot guarantee that our backup systems, regular data backups, security protocols, network protection mechanisms and other procedures currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to prevent network and service interruption, system failure, damage to one or more of our systems or data loss in the event of a security breach or attack on our network.
If we do not maintain a low rate of credit card chargebacks, protect against breach of the credit card information we store and comply with payment card industry standards, we will face the prospect of financial penalties and could lose our ability to accept credit card payments from subscribers, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
A majority of our revenue is processed through credit card transactions. Under current credit card industry practices, we are liable for fraudulent and disputed credit card transactions because we do not obtain the cardholder’s signature at the time of the transaction, even though the financial institution issuing the credit card may have authorized the transaction. Although we focus on keeping our rate of credit card refunds and chargebacks low, if our refunds or chargebacks increase, our credit card processors could require us to maintain or increase reserves, terminate their contracts with us or decline to serve as credit card processors for new joint ventures or brands, which would have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
We could also incur significant fines or lose our ability to process payments using credit cards if we fail to follow payment card industry data security standards, or PCI DSS, even if there is no compromise of subscriber information. During the course of compliance reviews during 2016, we discovered control gaps in our current adherence to the PCI DSS 3.2 standard. We are engaged with the appropriate financial partners, and are currently working on agreed-upon remediation plans to achieve compliance in timeframes acceptable to them. The fines that we have incurred to date as part of this process have been insignificant, but if we are unable to complete the remediation process within the timeframes we have agreed upon with these parties, we may incur additional financial penalties, our payment networks may increase the processing fees they charge to us, or we may lose our ability to process credit cards, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. In addition, we may have difficulty negotiating competitive rates with payment networks for as long as the control gaps remain.
Our failure to limit fraudulent transactions conducted on our websites (such as through the use of stolen credit card numbers) below levels consistent with credit card association guidelines has sometimes resulted, and may in the future result, in third-party audit requirements and additional expense to change our processes to reduce fraud. It could also subject us to

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liability or require us to increase reserves with our credit card processors. Under credit card association rules, penalties may be imposed at the discretion of the association. Any such potential penalties would be imposed on our credit card processors by the credit card association. Under our contracts with our credit card processors, we are required to reimburse the credit card processors for such penalties. Although we believe that our current level of fraud monitoring is adequate, we face the risk that we may fail to maintain an adequate level of fraud monitoring in the future, or that one or more credit card associations may, at any time, assess penalties against us or terminate our ability to accept credit card payments from subscribers, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, we could be liable if there is a breach of the credit card or other payment information we store. Online commerce and communications depend on the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. We rely on encryption and authentication technology that we have developed internally, as well as technology that we license from third parties, to provide security and authentication for the transmission of confidential information, including subscriber credit card numbers. However, we cannot ensure that this technology can prevent breaches of the systems that we use to protect subscriber credit card data. Although we maintain network security insurance, we cannot be certain that our coverage will cover, in whole or in part, liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on reasonable terms, or at all. In addition, some of our third-party partners also collect information from transactions with our customers, and we may be subject to litigation or our reputation may be harmed if our partners fail to protect our subscribers’ information or if they use it in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices.
Data breaches can also occur as a result of non-technical issues. Under our contracts with our card processors, if there is unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, credit card information that we store, we could be liable to the credit card issuing banks for their cost of issuing new cards and related expenses.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may be adversely affected due to a variety of factors, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below investor or analyst expectations.
Our quarterly and annual operating results and key metrics have varied from period to period in the past, and we expect they may continue to fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
our ability to cost-effectively attract, retain, and increase sales to subscribers;
the impact of competition;
the timing and success of introductions of new products or product enhancements;
the amount and timing of our marketing expenditures;
the amount and timing of capital expenditures or extraordinary expenses, such as litigation, regulatory or other dispute-related settlement payments (including, for example, any potential settlements of the pending legal proceedings described in Item 3 - Legal Proceedings);
the mix of products we sell;
higher than expected refunds to our subscribers;
systems, data center and Internet failures, breaches and service interruptions;
negative publicity about us or our brands;
loss of key employees or difficulties recruiting new employees;
the impact of changes in legislation or regulations, or to interpretations of existing legislation and regulations;
litigation or governmental enforcement actions against us due to actual or alleged failures to comply with applicable laws or regulations;
failures to comply with industry standards such as the payment card industry data security standards;
interest rate fluctuations;
terminations of, disputes with, or material changes to our relationships with third-party partners; and
costs, integration problems, or other liabilities associated with past or future acquisitions, strategic investments or joint ventures.
In the past, we have from time to time reported financial results that were below our expectations and the expectations of equity research analysts and investors, and it is possible that this could occur again in one or more future periods, due to any of the factors listed above, a combination of those factors or other reasons. In that event, our stock price could decline substantially.
Our business depends on establishing and maintaining strong brands. If we are not able to effectively promote our brands, or if the reputation of our brands is damaged, our ability to expand our subscriber base will be impaired and our business and operating results will be harmed.
We market our solutions through various brands, including Bluehost, HostGator, iPage, Domain.com, BigRock, ResellerClub, Constant Contact and SinglePlatform, among others.

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We believe that establishing and maintaining our brands is critical to our efforts to expand our subscriber base. If we do not build awareness of our key brands, we could be at a competitive disadvantage to companies whose brands are, or become, more recognizable than ours. For instance, we believe that our business has been, and may continue to be, affected by the increasing tendency of consumers to search for web presence and marketing solutions using brand related search terms as opposed to unbranded search terms such as hosting, website builders or email marketing. We believe this trend has benefited competitors who have invested more heavily in, and used a broader array of marketing channels in, building consumer awareness of their brand than we have. To attract and retain subscribers and to promote and maintain our brands in response to competitive pressures, we may have to substantially increase our financial commitment to creating and maintaining distinct brand loyalty among subscribers, particularly since a number of our competitors have invested heavily in their brands in the past and may be able to devote more resources than we can to brand awareness going forward.
 If subscribers, as well as our third-party referral marketing, distribution and reseller partners, do not perceive our existing solutions to be reliable and of high quality, if we introduce new services or enter into new business ventures that are not favorably received by such parties, or if our brands become associated with any fraudulent or deceptive conduct on the part of our subscribers, the value of our brands could be diminished, thereby decreasing the attractiveness of our solutions to such parties. As a result, our operating results may be adversely affected by decreased brand recognition and harm to our reputation.
The rate of growth of the SMB market for our solutions could be significantly lower than our estimates. The success of our products depends on the expansion and reliability of the Internet infrastructure and the continued growth and acceptance of email as a communications tool. If demand for our products and services does not meet expectations, our ability to generate revenue and meet our financial targets could be adversely affected.
The rate of growth of the SMB market may not meet our expectations, which would adversely affect our business. Our expectations for future revenue trends are based in part on assumptions reflecting our industry knowledge and experience serving SMBs, as well as our assumptions regarding demographic shifts, growth in the Internet infrastructure internationally and macroeconomic conditions. However, SMB spending patterns are difficult to predict and are sensitive to the general economic climate, the economic outlook specific to SMBs and overall consumer confidence, which makes it difficult to forecast market trends accurately. If any of our assumptions regarding the SMB market proves to be inaccurate, our revenue could be significantly lower than expected.
Our ability to compete depends on our ability to offer products and services that enable our subscribers to establish, manage and grow their businesses. Our web presence and commerce offerings are predicated on the assumption that an online presence will continue to be an important factor in our subscribers’ abilities to establish, expand, manage and monetize their businesses affordably. If we are incorrect in this assumption, for example due to the introduction of a new technology or industry standard (or evolution of existing technology such as social media or mobile messaging and “conversational commerce” applications such as WeChat) that supersedes the importance of an online presence or renders our existing or future solutions obsolete, then our ability to retain existing subscribers and attract new subscribers could be adversely affected, which could harm our ability to generate revenue and meet our financial targets.
The future success of our email marketing solution depends on the continued and widespread adoption of email as a primary means of communication. Security problems such as “viruses,” “worms,” and other malicious programs, reliability issues arising from outages and damage to the Internet infrastructure, or publicity about leaked emails of high-profile users could create the perception that email is not a safe and reliable means of communication. Use of email by businesses and consumers also depends on the ability of email providers to prevent unsolicited bulk email, or “spam,” from overwhelming consumers’ inboxes. If security problems become widespread or frequent or if email providers cannot effectively control spam, the use of email as a means of communication may decline as consumers find alternative ways to communicate. We could also be harmed if, in an attempt to limit unsolicited email, email providers restrict or limit emails sent by our customers using our email marketing solution. In addition, if alternative communications tools, such as social media, text messaging or services like WeChat, gain widespread acceptance, the need for email may decrease. Any of these events could materially increase our expenses or reduce demand for our email marketing solution and harm our business.
In addition, our business depends on the ability of our customers to access the Internet. The adoption of any laws or regulations adversely affecting the growth, popularity, accessibility or use of the Internet, including laws impacting Internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for our products, require us to make modifications to our products, or increase our operating costs. In December 2017, the Federal Communications Commission repealed rules adopted in 2015 that generally prohibited Internet service providers from charging some Internet content providers higher rates than others for the delivery of their content. With the repeal of these rules, Internet service providers could impose higher fees or deliver our content with less speed, reliability or otherwise on a non-neutral basis as compared to other market participants, which could adversely impact our business.
Our success depends in part on our strategic relationships and partnerships or other alliances with third parties.

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We rely on third-party relationships and alliances, such as with referrers and promoters of our brands and solutions, as well as with our providers of solutions and services that we offer to subscribers. If any of the third parties on which we rely fails to perform as expected, breaches or terminates their agreement with us, or becomes engaged in a dispute with us, our reputation could be adversely affected and our business could be harmed.
We rely on third-party referral partners and other marketing partners to acquire subscribers. If these partners fail to promote our brands or to refer new subscribers to us, begin promoting competing brands in addition to or instead of ours, fail to comply with regulations, are forced to change their marketing practices in response to new or existing regulations or cease to be viewed as credible sources of information by our potential subscribers, we may face decreased demand for our solutions, higher than expected subscriber acquisition costs, and loss of revenue. For instance, in the past, we were impacted when an important referral source began featuring competing web hosting brands on their website, rather than just our brand. It is possible that in the future, this referral source or another, similar referral source will continue to add competing web hosting options or even remove us as an option, which could have a negative impact on us.
Our ability to offer domain name services to our subscribers depends on certain third-party relationships. For example, certain of our subsidiaries are accredited by ICANN and various domain name registries as a domain name registrar. If we fail to comply with domain name registry requirements or if domain name registry requirements change, we could lose our accreditation, be required to increase our expenditures, comply with additional requirements or alter our service offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We also have relationships with product partners whose solutions, including shopping carts and security tools, we offer to our subscribers. Particularly in our email marketing segment, we rely on some of our partners to create integrations with third-party applications and platforms used by our subscribers. We may be unable to continue our relationship with any of these partners if, for example, they decline to continue to work with us or are acquired by third parties. In such an event, we may not be able to continue to offer these third-party tools to our subscribers or we may be forced to find an alternative that may be inferior to the solution that we had previously offered, which could harm our business and our operating results.
We also rely on software licensed from or hosted by third parties to offer our solutions to our subscribers. In addition, we may need to obtain future licenses from third parties to use intellectual property associated with the development of our solutions, which might not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any software or other intellectual property required for the development and maintenance of our solutions could result in delays in the provision of our solutions until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated, which could harm our business and operating results.
The international nature of our business exposes us to business risks that could limit the effectiveness of our growth strategy and cause our operating results to suffer.
We currently maintain offices and workforces, and conduct operations, primarily in the United States, Brazil, India and the Netherlands and have third-party support arrangements in India, China and the Philippines. We also have localized versions of our Bluehost and HostGator sites targeted to customers in several other countries. Conducting operations in international markets or establishing international locations subjects us to challenges that we have not generally faced in the United States, including:
adapting our solutions and marketing practices to international markets, including translation into foreign languages;
compliance with foreign laws, including more stringent laws in foreign jurisdictions relating to consumer privacy and protection of data collected from individuals and other third parties;
difficulties in collecting payments from subscribers or in automatically renewing their contracts with us, especially due to the more limited availability and popularity of credit cards in certain countries;
greater difficulty in enforcing contracts, including our terms of service and other agreements;
management, communication, compliance and integration problems resulting from cultural or language differences and geographic dispersion;
sufficiency of qualified labor pools and greater influence of organized labor in various international markets;
compliance by our employees, business partners and other agents with anti-bribery laws, economic sanction laws and regulations, export controls, and other U.S., foreign and local laws and regulations regarding international and multi-national business operations;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax (or sales, service, use or other tax) systems, and our inadvertent failure to comply with all relevant foreign tax rules and regulations due to our lack of familiarity with the jurisdiction’s tax laws;
restrictions and withholdings on the repatriation of earnings;
foreign currency exchange risk;
uncertain political, regulatory and economic climates in some countries, which could result in unpredictable or frequent changes in applicable regulations or in the general business environment that could negatively impact us; and

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reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries.
These factors have caused our international costs of doing business to exceed our comparable domestic costs. A negative impact from our international business efforts could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition as a whole.
In addition, our ability to expand internationally and attract and retain non-U.S. subscribers may be adversely affected by concerns about the extent to which U.S. governmental and law enforcement agencies may obtain data under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and Patriot Act and similar laws and regulations, and by privacy laws in other jurisdictions (such as the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation) that are generally more protective of subscriber data than U.S. law. Non-U.S. subscribers may decide that the privacy risks of storing data with a U.S.-based company outweigh the benefits and opt to seek solutions from a company based outside of the United States. In addition, certain foreign governments require local storage of their citizens’ data. If we become subject to such requirements, it may require us to increase the number of non-U.S. data centers or servers we maintain, increase our costs or adversely affect our ability to attract, retain or cost-effectively serve non-U.S. subscribers.
Acquisitions, joint ventures and other strategic investments may not achieve the intended benefits or may disrupt our current plans and operations.
Acquisitions have historically been an important component of our growth strategy. In February 2016, we acquired Constant Contact, and in the past we have acquired the businesses and assets of numerous other companies. We have also made strategic investments in and entered into joint ventures with third parties, typically with small companies focused on developing or marketing products that may complement our own. We may complete transactions of this type in the future. These transactions involve numerous risks, including the following:

difficulties or delays in integrating the acquired businesses, which could prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits of acquisitions;
reliance on third parties for transition services prior to subscriber migration;
difficulties in supporting and migrating acquired subscribers, if any, to our platforms, which could cause subscriber churn, unanticipated costs and damage to our reputation;
disruption of our ongoing business and diversion of management and other resources from existing operations;
the incurrence of additional debt or the issuance of equity securities, resulting in dilution to existing stockholders, in order to fund an acquisition;
assumption of debt or other actual or contingent liabilities of the acquired company, including litigation risk;
differences in corporate culture, compliance protocols, and risk management practices between us and acquired companies;
potential loss of an acquired business’ key employees;
potential loss of the subscribers or partners of an acquired business due to the actual or perceived impact of the acquisition;
difficulties associated with governance, management and control matters in majority or minority investments or joint ventures;
unforeseen or undisclosed liabilities or challenges associated with the companies, businesses or technologies we acquire;
adverse tax consequences, including exposure of our entire business to taxation in additional jurisdictions; and
accounting effects, including potential impairment charges and requirements that we record deferred revenue at fair value.
Any of these risks could result in our acquisitions disrupting our business and/or failing to achieve their intended objectives.
We have a history of losses and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We have had a net loss in each year since inception. We had a net loss attributable to Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. of $25.8 million for fiscal year 2015, $72.8 million for fiscal year 2016 and $107.3 million for fiscal year 2017, and we may incur losses in the future. In connection with our acquisitions, we have recorded long-lived assets at fair value. We record amortization expense in each reporting period related to the long-lived assets, which impacts the amount of net loss or income we record in each reporting period.
We have made and expect to continue to make significant expenditures to maintain, develop and expand our business. Our revenue and subscriber growth may be insufficient to achieve or maintain profitability in light of our expenditure levels. As further discussed in “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, our total subscriber base decreased during the year ended December 31, 2017, and revenue in our web presence and domain segments declined year over year. If we are not successful in addressing the factors that have contributed to these

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developments, we may not be able to either increase subscriber and revenue growth or maintain current subscriber and revenue levels, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. We may incur significant losses in the future for these or a number of other reasons, including interest expense related to our substantial indebtedness and the other risks described in this report.
We may need additional equity, debt or other financing in the future, which we may not be able to obtain on acceptable terms, or at all, and any additional financing may result in restrictions on our operations or substantial dilution to our stockholders.
We may need to raise funds in the future, for example, to develop new technologies, expand our business, respond to competitive pressures, acquire businesses, or respond to unanticipated situations. Our ability to obtain debt or equity funding will depend on a number of factors, including market conditions, interest rates, our operating performance and investor interest. In addition, incurring additional debt may not be permitted under our credit agreement or indenture governing our 10.875% senior notes due 2024 (which we refer to as the "Notes"), or may require lender or noteholder consent. As such, additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.
If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to reduce expenditures, including curtailing our growth strategies, foregoing acquisitions or reducing our product development efforts. If we succeed in raising additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible securities, then the issuance could result in substantial dilution to existing stockholders. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of debt securities or preferred stock, these new securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of the holders of our common stock. In addition, any preferred equity issuance or debt financing that we may obtain in the future could have restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. To the extent any such new indebtedness is secured and is at higher interest rates than on our existing first lien term loan facility, the interest rates on our existing first lien term loan facility could increase as a result of the “most-favored nation” pricing provision in our existing credit agreement. Further, to the extent that we incur additional indebtedness or such other obligations, the risks associated with our substantial leverage described elsewhere in this report, including our possible inability to service our debt, would increase.
We rely on data centers to deliver our services. If we are unable to renew our data center agreements on favorable terms, or at all, our business could be adversely affected. In addition, our ownership of our largest data center subjects us to potential costs and risks associated with real property ownership.
We currently serve most of our subscribers from six data center facilities located in Massachusetts (three), Texas (two), and Utah (one). We own the Utah data center and occupy the remaining data centers pursuant to co-location service agreements with third-party data center facilities which have built and maintain the co-located data centers for us and other parties. Although we own the servers in these data centers and engineer and architect the systems upon which our platforms run, we do not control the operation of the facilities we do not own.
The terms of our existing co-located data center agreements vary in length and expire on various dates through 2021. The owners of these or our other co-located data centers have no obligation to continue such arrangements beyond their current terms, nor are they obligated to renew their agreements with us on terms acceptable to us, or at all. These agreements may not provide us with adequate time to transfer operations to a new facility in the event of early termination. If we were required to move our equipment to a new facility without adequate time to plan and prepare for such migration, we would face significant challenges due to the technical complexity, risk and high costs of the relocation. Any such migration could result in downtime or other disruptions to our services, which could damage our reputation, cause subscriber losses and harm our operating results and financial condition.
If we are able to renew the agreements on our existing co-located data center facilities, the lease rates may be higher than those we pay under our existing agreements. In addition, the complexities and risks of data center migrations, even when we have adequate time to plan for them, can sometimes make it impractical to leave our current data center facilities, even when we may be able to obtain economic or other terms with a new data center provider that would be better for us over the long term. If we fail to increase our revenue by amounts sufficient to offset any increases in lease rates for our existing data center facilities, or cannot take advantage of potentially better terms with new data center providers because of migration challenges, our operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
With respect to the data center facility that we own, we are subject to risks, and may incur significant costs, related to our ownership of the facility and the land on which it is located, including costs or risks related to building repairs or upgrades and compliance with various federal, state and local laws applicable to real property owners, including environmental laws.
If our solutions and software contain serious errors or defects, or if human error on our part results in damage to our subscribers’ businesses, then we may lose revenue and market acceptance and may incur costs to defend or settle claims.

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Complex technology platforms, software applications and systems such as ours often contain errors or defects, such as errors in computer code or other systems errors, particularly when first introduced or when new versions, enhancements or updates are released. Because we also rely on third parties to develop many of our solutions, our products and services may contain additional errors or defects as a result of the integration of the third party’s product. Despite quality assurance measures, internal testing and beta testing by our subscribers, we cannot guarantee that our current and future solutions will not be free of serious defects, which could result in lost revenue or a delay in market acceptance.
Since our subscribers use our solutions to, among other things, maintain an online presence for their business, it is not uncommon for subscribers to allege that errors, defects, or other performance problems result in damage to their businesses. They could elect to cancel or not to renew their agreements, delay or withhold payments to us, or bring claims or file suit seeking significant compensation from us for the losses they or their businesses allege to have suffered. For instance, from time to time, our customer support personnel have inadvertently deleted subscriber data due to human error, technical problems or miscommunication with customers. These lost data cases have sometimes led to subscribers commencing litigation against us, settlement payments to subscribers, subscription cancellations, and negative social media attention. Although our subscriber agreements typically contain provisions designed to limit our exposure to specified claims, including data loss claims, existing or future laws or unfavorable judicial decisions could negate or diminish these limitations. Even if not successful, defending against claims brought against us can be time-consuming and costly and could seriously damage our reputation in the marketplace, making it harder for us to acquire and retain subscribers.
Because we are required to recognize revenue for our subscription-based services over the term of the applicable subscriber agreement, changes in our sales may not be immediately reflected in our operating results. In addition, we may not have adequate reserves in the event that our historical levels of refunds increase, which could adversely affect our liquidity and profitability.
We recognize revenue from our subscribers ratably over the respective terms of their agreements with us in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. These contracts are generally for service periods of up to 36 months. Accordingly, increases in sales during a particular period do not translate into corresponding increases in revenue during that same period, and a substantial portion of the revenue that we recognize during a quarter is derived from deferred revenue from our agreements with subscribers that we entered into during previous quarters.
As a result, we may not generate net earnings despite substantial sales activity during a particular period, since we are not allowed under applicable accounting rules to recognize all of the revenue from these sales immediately, and because we are required to record a significant portion of our related operating expenses during that period. Conversely, the existence of substantial deferred revenue may prevent deteriorating sales activity from becoming immediately apparent in our reported operating results.
In connection with our domain registration services, as a registrar, we are required under our agreements with domain registries to prepay the domain registry for the term for which a domain is registered. We recognize this prepayment as an asset on our consolidated balance sheet and record domain revenue and the domain registration expense ratably over the term that a domain is registered. This cash payment to the domain registry may lead to fluctuations in our liquidity that is not immediately reflected in our operating results.
In addition, our standard terms of service permit our subscribers to seek refunds from us in certain instances, and we maintain reserves to provide such refunds. The amount of such reserves is based on the amount of refunds that we have provided in the past. If our actual level of refund claims exceeds our estimates and our refund reserves are not adequate to cover such claims, our liquidity or profitability could be adversely affected. Furthermore, if we experience an unexpected decline in our revenue, we may not be able to adjust spending in a timely manner to compensate for such shortfall, and any significant shortfall in revenue relative to planned expenditures could adversely affect our business and operating results.
We are subject to laws and regulations related to privacy, data protection and information security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business, and changes in such regulations or laws could require us to modify our products or our marketing, market research and advertising practices.
We collect personally identifiable information and other data from our subscribers and prospective subscribers. We use this information to provide services to our subscribers, to support, expand and improve our business and, subject to each subscriber’s or prospective subscriber’s right to decline or opt out, we may use this information to market other products and services to them. We may also share subscribers’ personally identifiable information with certain third parties as authorized by the subscriber or as described in the applicable privacy policy.
The U.S. federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed guidelines or rules for the collection, distribution, use and storage of information collected from or about consumers or their devices. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, and various U.S. state and local governments and agencies regularly use their authority under laws prohibiting unfair or deceptive marketing and trade practices to investigate and penalize companies for practices related to the

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collection, use, handling, disclosure, dissemination and security of personal data of U.S. consumers. Several foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the countries of the European Union, or EU, and Canada, have laws and regulations dealing with the collection and use of personal data obtained from their residents, which are often more restrictive than those in the United States. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of personal information that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, contact information, and, in some jurisdictions, certain unique identifiers. These laws and regulations are subject to frequent revisions and differing interpretations, and have generally become more stringent over time.
From May 25, 2018, the EU-wide General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, will take effect, replacing the data protection laws of each EU member state. The GDPR will implement more stringent operational requirements for processors and controllers of personal data, including, for example, expanded disclosures about how personal information is to be used, increased requirements to erase an individual’s information upon request and comply with other requests from individuals, mandatory data breach notification requirements, restrictions on automated decision-making and profiling, and higher standards for data controllers to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent for certain data processing activities. The GDPR also significantly increases penalties for non-compliance, including where we act as a service provider (e.g., controller or processor). In addition, we face uncertainty about how the requirements of the GDPR will coexist with our obligations as a registrar accredited by ICANN, since certain GDPR requirements may conflict with those of ICANN. If our privacy or data security measures fail to comply with applicable current or future laws and regulations, including if we fail to fully notify subscribers and prospective subscribers of our data processing activities, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations, or enforcement actions (including enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data or our marketing practices, fines, or other liabilities), as well as negative publicity and a potential loss of business. Under the GDPR, fines of up to 20,000,000 Euros or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, may be imposed.
Future data privacy laws or regulations, or modifications to existing laws or regulations, could impair our ability to collect, transfer and/or use subscriber information that we use to provide targeted advertising to our subscribers, thereby impairing our ability to maintain and grow our subscriber base and increase revenue. Future restrictions on the collection, use, transfer, sharing or disclosure of our subscribers’ data or additional requirements for obtaining the consent of subscribers for the use and disclosure of such information could require us to modify our solutions and features, possibly in a material manner, and could limit our ability to develop new services and features. For example, regulation of cookies, web beacons and similar technology for online behavioral advertising may lead to broader restrictions on our activities, including our collection and use online usage information in order to attract and retain customers. Such regulation may also increase the potential for civil liability under consumer protection laws. In addition, providers of major browsers have and may continue to include features that allow users to limit the collection of certain data about their Internet usage, which could also inhibit our ability to track and analyze user data.
We rely on third parties to carry out a number of services for us, including processing personal data on our behalf, and while we enter into contractual arrangements to help ensure that they only process such data according to our instructions and have sufficient security measures in place, any security breach or non-compliance with our contractual terms or breach of applicable law by such third parties could result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our subscribers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation and business. In particular, under certain circumstances, we may be considered liable for non-compliance of our third-party partners with the GDPR or other privacy laws and regulations.
In addition, we collect personally identifiable data from our employees as part of our standard human resources procedures. This type of information is also subject to various laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where we operate, and it is possible that we or our third party contractors may not comply with applicable requirements, which could result in liability for us.
New laws, regulations or standards or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations or standards, including those in the areas of data security, data privacy, consumer protection and regulation of email providers, could require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. Failure by us to comply with applicable requirements may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
We are subject to consumer protection laws that regulate our marketing practices and prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business, and changes in such regulations or laws could require us to modify our products, marketing or advertising efforts.
In connection with the marketing, telemarketing or advertisement of our products and services by us or our affiliates or referral partners, we could be the target of claims relating to false, misleading or deceptive advertising or marketing practices, including under the auspices of the FTC and state consumer protection statutes. Among other things, our failure to implement

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any required consumer protection or regulatory disclosures on our various brand websites could subject us to adverse regulatory action, litigation or other adverse consequences. We also rely on third parties to provide marketing and advertising of our products and services, and we could be liable for, or face reputational harm as a result of, their marketing practices if, for example, they fail to comply with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In the EU and in other jurisdictions outside of the United States, we could be the target of similar claims under consumer protection laws, regulation of cloud services, e-commerce and distance selling regulation, advertising regulation, unfair competition rules or similar legislation.
The U.S. Controlling the Assault of Non Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003, or CAN-SPAM Act, establishes certain requirements for commercial email messages and specifies penalties for the transmission of commercial email messages that are intended to deceive the recipient as to source or content. The CAN-SPAM Act, among other things, obligates the sender of commercial emails to provide recipients with the ability to opt out of receiving future emails from the sender. In addition, some states and countries have passed laws regulating commercial email practices that are significantly more punitive and difficult to comply with than the CAN-SPAM Act, such as Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation, or CASL. The ability of our subscribers’ customers to opt out of receiving commercial emails may minimize the effectiveness of our products, particularly Constant Contact’s email marketing solution. Moreover, non-compliance with the CAN-SPAM Act carries significant financial penalties.
If we are found to have breached any consumer protection, e-commerce and distance selling, anti-spam, advertising, unfair competition laws or other laws or regulations in any country, including any laws regulating cloud services, we may be subject to enforcement actions that require us to change our business practices in a manner which may negatively impact us. This could also result in litigation, fines, penalties and adverse publicity that could cause reputational harm and loss of subscriber trust, which could have an adverse effect on our business.
Failure to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could substantially harm our business and operating results.
In order to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technologies and processes, we rely upon a combination of trademark, patent and trade secret law, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions. These afford only limited protection, may not prevent disclosure of confidential information, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, unauthorized parties, including employees, subscribers and third parties, have made, and in the future may make, unauthorized or infringing use of our products, services, software and other functionality, in whole or in part, or obtain and use information that we consider proprietary.
Policing our proprietary rights and protecting our brands and domain names is difficult and costly and may not always be effective. In addition, we may need to enforce our rights under the laws of countries that do not protect proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States and any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the intellectual property laws in any country in which we operate may compromise our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights.
Litigation or proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or other governmental authorities and administrative bodies in the United States and abroad may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation or proceedings could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to our management, result in a diversion of resources, the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property, and have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of any claim of infringement of another party’s intellectual property rights.
In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the United States and abroad involving patents and other intellectual property rights. Companies providing Internet-based products and services are increasingly bringing and becoming subject to suits alleging infringement of proprietary rights, particularly patent rights. The risk of patent litigation has been amplified by the increase in certain third parties, so-called “non-practicing entities,” whose sole business is to assert patent claims and against which our own intellectual property portfolio may provide little deterrent value.
We could incur substantial costs in prosecuting or defending any intellectual property litigation and we have incurred such costs in the past. If we sue to enforce our rights or are sued by a third party that claims that our solutions infringe its rights, the litigation could be expensive and could divert our management’s time and attention. Even a threat of litigation could result in substantial expense and time. In addition, some of our agreements with partners and others require us to indemnify those parties for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which would increase the cost to us resulting from an adverse ruling on any such claim.
Any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, may require us to do one or more of the following:
cease selling or using solutions that incorporate the intellectual property that our solutions allegedly infringe;

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make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
obtain a license or enter into a royalty agreement, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, to sell or use the relevant technology; or redesign the allegedly infringing solutions to avoid infringement, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible.
If we are required to make substantial payments or undertake any of the other actions noted above as a result of any intellectual property infringement claims against us, our business or operating results could be harmed.
In addition, many companies are devoting significant resources to obtaining patents that could affect many aspects of our business, and our competitors and others may have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. Since we do not have, and are not attempting to develop, a significant patent portfolio, this may prevent us from deterring patent infringement claims as well as limit our ability to develop product enhancements that are similar to patented third-party technology.
Our use of “open source” software could adversely affect our ability to sell our services and subject us to possible litigation.
We use open source software, such as MySQL and Apache, in providing a substantial portion of our solutions, and we may incorporate additional open source software in the future. Such open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses. If we fail to comply with these licenses, we may be subject to certain conditions, including requirements that we offer our solutions that incorporate the open source software for no cost; that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software; and/or that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. In addition, if a third-party software provider has incorporated open source software into software that we license from such provider, we could be required to disclose any of our source code that incorporates or is a modification of such licensed software. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our solutions that contained the open source software, and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our solutions. In addition, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Such litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our products.
We could face liability, or our reputation might be harmed, as a result of the activities of our subscribers, the content of their websites, the data they store on our servers or the emails that they send.
Our role as a provider of cloud-based solutions, including website hosting services, domain registration services and email marketing, may subject us to potential liability for the activities of our subscribers on or in connection with their websites or domain names or for the data they store on or send using our servers. Although our subscriber terms of use prohibit illegal use of our services by our subscribers and permit us to take down websites or take other appropriate actions for illegal use, subscribers may nonetheless engage in prohibited activities or upload, transmit or store content with us in violation of applicable law, third-party rights, or the subscriber’s own policies, which could subject us to liability.
Several U.S. federal statutes may apply to us with respect to various subscriber activities:
the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, or DMCA, provides recourse for owners of copyrighted material who believe that their rights under U.S. copyright law have been infringed on the Internet. Under the DMCA, based on our current business activity as an online service provider that does not monitor, own or control website content posted by our subscribers, we generally are not liable for copyright infringing content posted by our subscribers or other third parties, provided that we follow the procedures for handling copyright infringement claims set forth in the DMCA. Generally, if we receive a proper notice from, or on behalf of, a copyright owner alleging infringement of copyrighted material located on websites we host, and we fail to expeditiously remove or disable access to the allegedly infringing material or otherwise fail to meet the requirements of the safe harbor provided by the DMCA, the copyright owner may seek to impose liability on us. We have in the past faced, and could in the future face, liability for copyright infringement due to technical mistakes in complying with the detailed DMCA take-down procedures.
the Communications Decency Act of 1996, or CDA, generally protects interactive computer service providers such as us, from liability for certain online activities of their customers, such as the publication of defamatory or other objectionable content. As an interactive computer services provider, we do not monitor hosted websites or prescreen the content placed by our subscribers on their sites. Accordingly, under the CDA, we are generally not responsible for the subscriber-created content hosted on our servers. However, the CDA does not apply in foreign jurisdictions, and proposed legislation now or in the future may reduce the immunity provided to us by the CDA, which could require us

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to develop or purchase tools that automatically screen for certain types of customer content, which would likely be expensive and time-consuming. Further, despite the CDA, we may nonetheless be brought into disputes between our subscribers and third parties which would require us to devote management time and resources to resolve such matters. We could also be the target of negative publicity about these types of disputes or about our hosting of websites or facilitating of email messages containing objectionable content (including, for example, alleged terrorist or racist content), particularly since there has recently been increasing pressure on companies providing social media platforms and other technology companies to screen for and remove these types of content. Such publicity could also have an adverse effect on our reputation and therefore our business.
in addition to the CDA, the Securing the Protection of our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act, or the SPEECH Act, provides a statutory exception to the enforcement by a U.S. court of a foreign judgment that is less protective of free speech than the United States. Generally, the exception applies if the law applied in the foreign court did not provide at least as much protection for freedom of speech and press as would be provided by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution or by the constitution and law of the state in which the U.S. court is located, or if no finding of a violation would be supported under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution or under the constitution and law of the state in which the U.S. court is located. Although the SPEECH Act may protect us from the enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States, it does not affect the enforceability of the judgment in the foreign country that issued the judgment. Given our international presence, we may therefore, nonetheless, have to defend against or comply with any foreign judgments made against us, which could take up substantial management time and resources and damage our reputation.   
Although these statutes and case law in the United States have generally shielded us from liability for subscriber activities to date, court rulings in pending or future litigation, or future legislative or regulatory actions, may narrow the scope of protection afforded us under these laws. Several court decisions arguably have already narrowed the scope of the immunity provided to interactive computer services in the United States under the CDA. In addition, laws governing these activities are unsettled in many international jurisdictions, or may prove difficult or impossible for us to comply with in some international jurisdictions. Also, notwithstanding the exculpatory language of these bodies of law, we may be embroiled in complaints and lawsuits which, even if ultimately resolved in our favor, add cost to our doing business and may divert management’s time and attention. Finally, other existing bodies of law, including the criminal laws of various states, may be deemed to apply or new statutes or regulations may be adopted in the future, any of which could expose us to further liability and increase our costs of doing business.
We could also face liability under the Stored Communications Act, or SCA, which generally regulates voluntary and compelled disclosures of stored wire and electronic communications and transactional records by electronic communication service providers and remote computing service providers, which we believe includes us.  The SCA broadly prevents disclosure of such communications and records with certain exceptions.  We regularly receive requests for customer data in the ordinary course of business from law enforcement, government entities or from civil subpoenas.  While we have processes and procedures for responding to requests for customer data, we have in the past faced, and may in the future face, liability if we produce customer data in violation of the SCA. This could subject us to litigation, payment of damages, or reputational harm and take up management time and increase our costs of doing business.
We may face liability in connection with ownership or control of subscriber accounts, domain names or email contact lists or in connection with domain names we own.
As a provider of cloud-based solutions, including as a registrar of domain names and related services, we may face liability or costs related to ownership or control of subscriber accounts, websites, domain names or email contact lists, or in connection with domain names we own, including the following:
Liability for our failure to renew a subscriber’s domain or for our role in the wrongful transfer of control or ownership of accounts, websites or domain names;
Liability for other forms of account, website or domain name “hijacking,” including misappropriation by third parties of subscriber accounts, websites or domain names;
Liability for providing the identity and contact details of a domain name registrant who has purchased our domain privacy service, even though our terms of service reserve the right to provide the underlying WHOIS information and/or to cancel privacy services on domain names in certain circumstances;
Liability for trademark infringement if one or more domain names in our domain name portfolios that we own and provide for resale is alleged to violate another party’s trademark
Liability for the infringement of third party trademarks or copyrights if advertisements displayed on websites associated with domains registered by us contain allegedly infringing content placed by third parties.
Occasionally a subscriber may register a domain name that is identical or similar to another party’s trademark or the name of a living person. Disputes involving registration or control of domain names are often resolved through the Uniform

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Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, or UDRP, ICANN’s administrative process for domain name dispute resolution, or through litigation under the Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, or ACPA, or under general theories of trademark infringement or dilution. The UDRP generally does not impose liability on registrars, and the ACPA provides that registrars may not be held liable for registering or maintaining a domain name absent a showing of bad faith, intent to profit or reckless disregard of a court order by the registrar. However, we may face liability if we fail to comply in a timely manner with procedural requirements under these rules. In addition, these processes typically require at least limited involvement by us and, therefore, could result in increased costs for us.
We are subject to export controls and economic sanctions laws that could impair our ability to compete in international markets and subject us to liability if we are not in full compliance with applicable laws.
Our business activities are subject to various restrictions under U.S. export controls and trade and economic sanctions laws, including the U.S. Commerce Department’s Export Administration Regulations and economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, which prohibit certain transactions with U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons and entities.
Although we take precautions and have implemented, and continue to seek to enhance, compliance measures to prevent transactions with U.S. sanction targets, from time to time we have identified, and we expect to continue to identify, instances of non-compliance with these laws, rules and regulations and transactions which we are required to block and report to OFAC. In particular, as we enhance the systems we use to screen out prohibited transactions, we may identify additional instances of non-compliance. In addition, as a result of our acquisition activities, we have acquired, and we may acquire in the future, companies for which we could face potential liability or penalties for violations if they have not implemented sufficient compliance measures to prevent transactions with targets of U.S. and other applicable sanctions laws. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, government investigations, and reputational harm. In addition, if our third-party resellers fail to comply with these laws and regulations in their dealings, we could face potential liability or penalties for violations.
Changes in our solutions or changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction and sale of our solutions in international markets, prevent our subscribers with international operations from deploying our solutions or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our solutions to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any limitations or prohibitions on, or delays affecting, our ability to export or sell our solutions could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Due to the global nature of our business, we could be adversely affected by violations of anti-bribery laws.
The global nature of our business requires us (including our employees and business partners or agents acting on our behalf) to comply with laws and regulations that prohibit bribery and corruption anywhere in the world. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or the Bribery Act, and similar anti-bribery laws in India, Brazil or other jurisdictions where we do business generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials and other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or an improper business advantage. In addition, the FCPA requires public companies to maintain records that accurately and fairly represent their transactions and have an adequate system of internal accounting controls. We currently operate in areas of the world that have a reputation for heightened risks of corruption and, in certain circumstances, compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. In addition, changes in laws could result in increased regulatory requirements and compliance costs which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure that our employees, business partners or other agents will not engage in prohibited conduct and expose us to the risk of liability under the FCPA, the Bribery Act, or other anti-bribery laws. If we are found to be in violation of the FCPA, the Bribery Act or other anti-bribery laws, we could suffer criminal and civil penalties, other sanctions, and reputational damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets would result in a decrease in earnings.
Current accounting rules provide that goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives may not be amortized, but instead must be tested for impairment at least annually. These rules also require that intangible assets with definite useful lives be amortized over their respective estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values, and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Additionally, a reorganization or change in the number of reporting units could result in the reassignment of goodwill between reporting units and may trigger an impairment assessment. We have substantial goodwill and other intangible assets, and we would be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or intangible assets is determined. Any impairment charges or changes to the estimated amortization periods could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. We recorded charges for impairment of

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goodwill and other intangible assets during 2016 and 2017, and it is possible we will record additional impairment charges in the future.
Risks Related to Our Substantial Indebtedness
Our substantial level of indebtedness could materially and adversely affect our financial condition.
We now have, and expect to continue to have, significant indebtedness that could result in a material and adverse effect on our business. As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately $2.0 billion of aggregate indebtedness, net of original issue discounts of $25.8 million and deferred financing costs of $37.7 million. Under our new first lien term loan facility entered into on June 14, 2017, which refinanced our prior first lien term loan facilities, we are required to repay approximately $8.5 million of principal at the end of each quarter and are required to pay accrued interest upon the maturity of each interest accrual period. We estimate that our interest payments on our new first lien term loan facility will be approximately $96.1 million for 2018. The interest accrual periods under our new first lien term loan facility and our revolving credit facility (which we refer to collectively as our "Senior Credit Facilities") are typically three months in duration, except for LIBOR-based revolver loans, which are generally one or three months in duration. The actual amounts of our debt servicing payments vary based on the amounts of indebtedness outstanding, whether we borrow on a LIBOR or base rate basis, the applicable interest accrual periods and the applicable interest rates, which vary based on prescribed formulas. We are also required to pay accrued interest on the Notes on a semi-annual basis. We paid approximately $38.1 million of interest on the Notes during the year ended December 31, 2017.
We may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future. The terms of our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes permit us to incur additional debt subject to certain conditions. This high level of debt could have important consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to make payments on our indebtedness;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse financial, business, economic and industry conditions, as well as other factors that are beyond our control;
requiring us to refinance, or resulting in our inability to refinance, all or a portion of our indebtedness at or before maturity, on favorable terms or at all, whether due to uncertain credit markets, our business performance, or other factors;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, research and development efforts and other general corporate purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate and placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less highly leveraged;
restricting our ability to pay dividends on our capital stock or redeem, repurchase or retire our capital stock or indebtedness;
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are, and may in the future be, at variable interest rates;
requiring us to sell assets or incur additional indebtedness if we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund our liquidity needs; and
making it more difficult for us to fund other liquidity needs.  
The occurrence of any one of these events or our failure to generate sufficient cash flow from operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face, as described further herein, could intensify and we may not be able to meet all our debt obligations.
The terms of our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes impose restrictions on our business, reducing our operational flexibility and creating default risks. Failure to comply with these restrictions, or other events, could result in default under the relevant agreements that could trigger an acceleration of our indebtedness that we may not be able to repay.
Our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes require compliance with a set of financial and non-financial covenants. These covenants contain numerous restrictions on our ability to, among other things:
incur additional debt;
make restricted payments (including any dividends or other distributions in respect of our capital stock and any investments);

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sell or transfer assets;
enter into affiliate transactions;
create liens;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and
take other actions.
As a result, we may be restricted from engaging in business activities that may otherwise improve our business or from financing future operations or capital needs. We are also required to comply with a financial covenant to maintain a maximum ratio of consolidated senior secured net indebtedness to an adjusted consolidated EBITDA measure. Failure to comply with the covenants, if not cured or waived, could result in an event of default that could trigger acceleration of our indebtedness, which would require us to repay all amounts owing under our Senior Credit Facilities and the Notes and could have a material adverse impact on our business. Our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes also contain provisions that trigger repayment obligations, including in some cases upon a change of control, as well as various representations and warranties which, if breached, could lead to events of default. We cannot be certain that our future operating results will be sufficient to ensure compliance with the covenants in our Senior Credit Facilities or the indenture governing the Notes or to remedy any defaults under our Senior Credit Facilities or the indenture governing the Notes. In addition, in the event of any event of default and related acceleration, we may not have or be able to obtain sufficient funds to make any accelerated payments.
EIG Investors, the borrower under our Senior Credit Facilities and the Issuer of the Notes, is a holding company, and may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of its indebtedness.
EIG Investors Corp, or EIG Investors, the borrower under our Senior Credit Facilities and the issuer of the Notes, has no direct operations and no significant assets other than the stock of its subsidiaries. Because it conducts its operations through its operating subsidiaries, EIG Investors depends on those entities to generate the funds necessary to meet its financial obligations, including its required obligations under our Senior Credit Facilities and the Notes. The ability of our subsidiaries to make transfers and other distributions to EIG Investors is subject to, among other things, the terms of any debt instruments of those subsidiaries then in effect, applicable law, prevailing economic and competitive conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If transfers or other distributions from our subsidiaries to EIG Investors were eliminated, delayed, reduced or otherwise impaired, its ability to make payments on its obligations would be substantially impaired.
Furthermore, if EIG Investors’ cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund its debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital, restructure or refinance EIG Investors’ or our indebtedness, or sell assets. We may not be able to accomplish any of these alternatives on a timely basis, on satisfactory terms, or at all, which would limit EIG Investors’ ability to meet its scheduled debt service obligations (including in respect of our Senior Credit Facilities or the Notes). Our ability to restructure or refinance our indebtedness will depend on the condition of the capital markets and the financial condition of EIG Investors and us at the time. Any refinancing of EIG Investors’ debt could be at higher interest rates and may require EIG Investors to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. Our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes will also restrict our ability to use the proceeds from asset sales. We may not be able to consummate those asset sales to raise capital or sell assets at prices that we believe are fair, and any proceeds that we receive may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. In addition, any failure to make payments of interest and principal on EIG Investors’ outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis could result in an event of default that would trigger acceleration of our indebtedness and would likely result in a reduction of EIG Investors' credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness.
EIG Investors may not be able to repurchase the Notes upon a change of control or pursuant to an asset sale offer, which would cause a default under the indenture governing the Notes and our Senior Credit Facilities.
Upon the occurrence of specific kinds of change of control events, EIG Investors will be required under the indenture governing the Notes to offer to repurchase all outstanding Notes at 101% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, unless the Notes have been previously called for redemption. The source of funds for any such purchase of the Notes will be EIG Investors’ available cash or cash generated from its subsidiaries’ operations or other sources, including borrowings, sales of assets or sales of equity. EIG Investors may not be able to repurchase the Notes upon a change of control because it may not have sufficient financial resources to purchase all of the Notes that are tendered upon a change of control. Further, the terms of our Senior Credit Facilities and any of EIG Investors' future debt agreements may restrict EIG Investors from repurchasing all of the Notes tendered by holders upon a change of control. Accordingly, EIG Investors may not be able to satisfy its obligations to purchase the Notes unless it is able to refinance or obtain waivers under our Senior Credit Facilities. EIG Investors’ failure to repurchase the Notes upon a change of control would cause an event of default under the indenture governing the Notes and a cross-default under our Senior Credit Facilities. Our Senior Credit Facilities also provide that a change of control is an event default that permits lenders to accelerate the maturity of borrowings thereunder. Any of EIG Investors’ future debt agreements may contain similar provisions.

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In addition, in certain circumstances following a non-ordinary course asset sale as specified in the indenture governing the Notes, EIG Investors may be required to commence an offer to purchase the Notes with the proceeds from the asset sale at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest. Our Senior Credit Facilities and any of EIG Investors' future debt agreements may contain restrictions that would limit or prohibit EIG Investors from completing any such offer. EIG Investors’ failure to purchase any such Notes when required under the indenture would be an event of default and a cross-default under our Senior Credit Facilities.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price has been and may in the future be volatile, which could cause holders of our common stock to incur substantial losses.
The trading price of our common stock has been and may in the future be subject to substantial price volatility. As a result of this volatility, our stockholders could incur substantial losses. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the factors listed below and other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section:
low trading volume, which could cause even a small number of purchases or sales of our stock to have an impact on the trading price of our common stock;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of comparable companies;
actual or anticipated changes in our earnings or any financial projections we may provide to the public, or fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in expectations for, or evaluations of, our stock by securities analysts, or decisions by securities or industry analysts not to publish or to cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market;
ratings changes by debt ratings agencies;
short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions involving our capital stock;
announcements of technological innovations, new products, strategic alliances, or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
litigation or regulatory proceedings involving us; and
recruitment or departure of key personnel.
Securities class action litigation is sometimes brought against companies that experience periods of volatility in the market price of their securities. In May 2015, a class action securities lawsuit was filed against us, and in August 2015, a separate class action securities lawsuit was filed against Constant Contact; both lawsuits remain pending. In the future we may be the target of additional securities litigation related to volatility in our stock, which could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.
Future sales of shares of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
A substantial portion of our issued and outstanding common stock can be traded without restriction at any time, and the remaining shares of our issued and outstanding common stock can be sold subject to volume limitations and other requirements applicable to affiliate sales under the federal securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. In addition, we have registered 38,000,000 shares of common stock that have been issued or reserved for future issuance under our Amended and Restated 2013 Stock Incentive Plan and 14,346,830 shares of common stock that have been issued or reserved for future issuance under our Constant Contact, Inc. Second Amended and Restated 2011 Stock Incentive Plan. Of these shares, as of December 31, 2017, a total of 25,317,176 shares of our common stock are subject to outstanding options, restricted stock units and restricted stock awards, of which 14,661,394 shares are exercisable or have vested. The exercise of these options or the vesting of restricted stock units and shares of restricted stock and the subsequent sale of the common stock underlying such options or upon the vesting of such restricted stock units and restricted stock awards could cause a decline in our stock price. These sales also might make it difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. We cannot predict the size of future issuances or the effect, if any, that any future issuances may have on the market price for our common stock.
In addition, holders of an aggregate of 65,693,919 shares of our common stock have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. Once we register these shares, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to any applicable vesting requirements.

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Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.
As of December 31, 2017, our directors, executive officers and their affiliates beneficially own, in the aggregate, 49.9% of our issued and outstanding common stock. Specifically, investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus own, in the aggregate, 36.6% of our issued and outstanding common stock, and investment funds and entities affiliated with Goldman Sachs own, in the aggregate, approximately 10.7% of our issued and outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders, if they act together, could have significant influence over the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval. Our stockholders’ agreement contains agreements among the parties with respect to certain matters, including the election of directors, and certain restrictions on our ability to effect specified corporate transactions. If these stockholders were to act together, they could have significant influence over the management and affairs of our company. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock. In particular, the significant ownership interest of investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus and Goldman Sachs in our common stock could adversely affect investors’ perceptions of our corporate governance practices.
Anti-takeover provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and our stockholders agreement, as well as provisions of Delaware law, might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.
Our restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, our stockholders agreement and Delaware law contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. Our corporate governance documents include provisions:
authorizing blank check preferred stock, which could be issued without stockholder approval and with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock;
limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;
limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings;
providing that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be taken at a duly called annual or special meeting of such stockholders and may not be taken by any consent in writing by such stockholders;
requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors, subject to limited exceptions set forth in our stockholders agreement;
controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of board of directors and stockholder meetings;
providing our board of directors with the express power to postpone previously scheduled annual meetings and to cancel previously scheduled special meetings;
establishing a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;
establishing Delaware as the exclusive jurisdiction for specified types of stockholder litigation involving us or our directors;
providing that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus have the right to designate at least three directors for election to our board of directors, certain actions required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders, including amendments to our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws and certain specified corporate transactions, may be effected only with the affirmative vote of 75% of our board of directors, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law;
providing that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus have the right to designate at least one director for election to our board of directors and for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with Goldman Sachs have the right to designate one director for election to our board of directors, in each case, a quorum of our board of directors will not exist without at least one director designee of each of Warburg Pincus and Goldman Sachs present at such meeting, subject to limited exceptions set forth in our stockholders agreement;
limiting the determination of the number of directors on our board of directors and the filling of vacancies or newly created seats on the board to our board of directors then in office; subject to limited exceptions set forth in our stockholders agreement; and
providing that directors may be removed by stockholders only for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors; provided that any director designated by investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or Goldman Sachs may be removed with or without cause only by Warburg Pincus or Goldman Sachs, respectively.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our issued and outstanding common

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stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our issued and outstanding common stock. Since the investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus and Goldman Sachs became holders of more than 15% of our issued and outstanding common stock in a transaction that was approved by our board of directors, the restrictions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law would not apply to a business combination transaction with any investment funds or entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or Goldman Sachs. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation expressly exempts investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or Goldman Sachs from the applicability of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Any provision of our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.
Certain of our stockholders have the right to engage or invest in the same or similar businesses as us.
Investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus or Goldman Sachs, together, hold a significant interest in our company. Warburg Pincus, Goldman Sachs and their respective affiliates have other investments and business activities in addition to their ownership of our company. Warburg Pincus, Goldman Sachs and their respective affiliates have the right, and have no duty to abstain from exercising the right, to engage or invest in the same or similar businesses as us. To the fullest extent permitted by law, we have, on behalf of ourselves, our subsidiaries and our and their respective stockholders, renounced any interest or expectancy in, or in being offered an opportunity to participate in, any business opportunity that may be presented to Warburg Pincus, Goldman Sachs or any of their respective affiliates, partners, principals, directors, officers, members, managers, employees or other representatives, and no such person has any duty to communicate or offer such business opportunity to us or any of our subsidiaries or shall be liable to us or any of our subsidiaries or any of our or its stockholders for breach of any duty, as a director or officer or otherwise, by reason of the fact that such person pursues or acquires such business opportunity, directs such business opportunity to another person or fails to present such business opportunity, or information regarding such business opportunity, to us or our subsidiaries, unless, in the case of any such person who is a director or officer of ours, such business opportunity is expressly offered to such director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as a director or officer of ours.
We may not pay any dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.
We do not currently anticipate that we will pay any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Instead, we expect to retain any earnings to invest in our business. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends is currently limited by the terms of our Senior Credit Facilities and the indenture governing the Notes, and any future credit agreement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, to realize any return on their investment.
ITEM 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
ITEM 2.
Properties
As of December 31, 2017, we leased approximately 115,000 square feet of office space located in Burlington, Massachusetts, which serves as our corporate headquarters, under a lease that expires in March 2026.
Our web presence segment used additional offices and data centers, primarily:
approximately 387,000 square feet of leased office space in the United States located primarily in Arizona, Ohio, Texas, Utah and Washington;
approximately 60,000 square feet of leased office space outside of the United States located primarily in Brazil, China, India, and the Netherlands;
approximately 57,000 square feet of office and data center space we own in Utah; and
leased and co-located data center space located primarily in Massachusetts and Texas, with approximately 2,560 kilowatts of power under contract.
Our domain segment used additional offices and data centers, primarily:
approximately 87,000 square feet of leased office space outside of the United States located primarily in India; and

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leased and co-located data center space located primarily in Texas, India and Hong Kong, with approximately 400 kilowatts of power under contract.
Our email marketing segment used additional offices and data centers, primarily:
approximately 236,000 square feet of leased office space in the United States located primarily in Massachusetts, Colorado and New York; and
leased and co-located data center space located primarily in Massachusetts and Texas, with approximately 750 kilowatts of power under contract.
We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed to accommodate planned expansion of our operations.
ITEM 3.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time we are involved in legal proceedings or subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently involved in any such legal proceeding or subject to any such claim that, in the opinion of our management, would have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition. However, the results of such legal proceedings or claims cannot be predicted with certainty, and regardless of the outcome, can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. Neither the ultimate outcome of the matters listed below nor an estimate of any probable losses or any reasonably possible losses (other than the SEC investigations reserve discussed below) can be assessed at this time.
Endurance
We received a subpoena dated December 10, 2015 from the Boston Regional Office of the SEC, requiring the production of certain documents, including, among other things, documents related to our financial reporting, including operating and non-GAAP metrics, refund, sales and marketing practices and transactions with related parties. We are fully cooperating with the SEC’s investigation. We are also in discussions with the Boston Regional Office regarding a potential resolution of its investigation, and have reserved $8.0 million in connection with a potential resolution of both this investigation and the Constant Contact investigation discussed below. We can make no assurances as to whether the investigation will be resolved by agreement and/or the time or resources that will need to be devoted to this investigation or its final outcome, or the impact, if any, of this investigation or any related legal or regulatory proceedings on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
On May 4, 2015, Christopher Machado, a purported holder of our common stock, filed a civil action in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against us and our former chief executive officer and our former chief financial officer, captioned Machado v. Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 1:15-cv-11775-GAO. The plaintiff filed an amended complaint on December 8, 2015, and a second amended complaint on March 18, 2016. We moved to dismiss the second amended complaint, but before the court ruled on our motion, with our assent, the plaintiff filed a third amended complaint on June 30, 2017. In the third amended complaint, plaintiffs Christopher Machado and Michael Rubin allege claims for violations of Section 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act, and Sections 11, 12(a)(2), and 15 of the Securities Act, on behalf of a purported class of purchasers of our securities between October 25, 2013 and December 16, 2015, including persons or entities who purchased or acquired our shares pursuant or traceable to the registration statement and prospectus issued in connection with our October 25, 2013 initial public offering. The plaintiffs challenge as false or misleading certain of our disclosures about the total number of subscribers, average revenue per subscriber, the number of customers paying over $500 per year for our products and services, and the average number of products sold per subscriber. The plaintiffs seek, on behalf of themselves and the purported class, compensatory damages, rescissory damages as to class members who purchased shares pursuant to the offering and the plaintiffs' costs and expenses of litigation. We moved to dismiss the third amended complaint on August 29, 2017. The plaintiffs' memorandum in opposition to our motion to dismiss was filed on October 30, 2017, and our reply memorandum was filed on December 14, 2017. On January 12, 2018, the parties filed a joint motion to stay all proceedings pending the outcome of a mediation between the parties scheduled for February 23, 2018. We and the individual defendants intend to deny any liability or wrongdoing and to vigorously defend all claims asserted. We cannot, however, make any assurances as to the outcome of the proceeding.
Constant Contact
On December 10, 2015, Constant Contact received a subpoena from the Boston Regional Office of the SEC, requiring the production of documents pertaining to Constant Contact’s sales, marketing, and customer retention practices, as well as periodic public disclosure of financial and operating metrics. We are fully cooperating with the SEC’s investigation. As discussed above, we are in discussions with the Boston Regional Office regarding a potential resolution of its investigation, and

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have reserved $8 million in connection with a potential resolution of both this investigation and the Endurance investigation discussed above. We currently expect that any settlement arising from the SEC investigation of Constant Contact will involve asserted scienter-based claims. In addition, we can make no assurances as to whether the investigation will be resolved by agreement and/or the time or resources that will need to be devoted to this investigation or its final outcome, or the impact, if any, of this investigation or any related legal or regulatory proceedings on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
On August 7, 2015, a purported class action lawsuit, William McGee v. Constant Contact, Inc., et al, was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against Constant Contact and two of its former officers. An amended complaint, which named an additional former officer as a defendant, was filed December 19, 2016. The lawsuit asserts claims under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act, and is premised on allegedly false and/or misleading statements, and non-disclosure of material facts, regarding Constant Contact’s business, operations, prospects and performance during the proposed class period of October 23, 2014 to July 23, 2015. This litigation remains in its early stages. We and the individual defendants intend to vigorously defend all claims asserted. We cannot, however, make any assurances as to the outcome of this proceeding.
In August 2012, RPost Holdings, Inc., RPost Communications Limited and RMail Limited, or collectively, RPost, filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas that named Constant Contact as a defendant in a lawsuit. The complaint alleged that certain elements of Constant Contact’s email marketing technology infringe five patents held by RPost. RPost sought an award for damages in an unspecified amount and injunctive relief. In February 2013, RPost amended its complaint to name five of Constant Contact’s marketing partners as defendants. Under Constant Contact’s contractual agreements with these marketing partners, Constant Contact is obligated to indemnify them for claims related to patent infringement. Constant Contact filed a motion to sever and stay the claims against its partners and multiple motions to dismiss the claims against it. In January 2014, the case was stayed pending the resolution of certain state court and bankruptcy actions involving RPost, to which Constant Contact is not a party. Meanwhile, RPost asserted the same patents it asserted against Constant Contact in litigation against GoDaddy. In June 2016, GoDaddy succeeded in invalidating all of those RPost patents, with Endurance filing an amicus brief in the Federal Circuit in support of GoDaddy’s position in November 2016.  RPost’s efforts to appeal, including filing a writ of certiorari with the United States Supreme Court, which was denied on December 11, 2017, were unsuccessful. All claims asserted by RPost against Constant Contact in December 2012 thus remain invalid except for one claim from one patent which RPost did not assert against GoDaddy. Constant Contact has notified RPost that Constant Contact believes the remaining claim is invalid in light of the other litigation that RPost lost.  On December 12, 2017, Constant Contact moved to lift the stay in the District Court order to file a Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings invalidating all of the RPost patents-in-suit.  While this motion was pending, RPost voluntarily dismissed all of its patent claims against Constant Contact and the defendant marketing partners of Constant Contact on December 29, 2017.  On January 19, 2018, the district court entered an order dismissing the lawsuit.
Legal Proceedings Related to the Constant Contact acquisition
On December 11, 2015, a putative class action lawsuit relating to the Constant Contact acquisition, captioned Irfan Chawdry, Individually and On Behalf of All Others Similarly Situated v. Gail Goodman, et al. Case No. 11797, and on December 21, 2015, a putative class action lawsuit relating to the acquisition captioned David V. Myers, Individually and On Behalf of All Others Similarly Situated v. Gail Goodman, et al. Case No. 11828 (together, the “Complaints”) were filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, naming Constant Contact, each of Constant Contact’s directors, Endurance and Paintbrush Acquisition Corporation as defendants. The Complaints generally alleged, among other things, that in connection with the acquisition the directors of Constant Contact breached their fiduciary duties owed to the stockholders of Constant Contact by agreeing to sell Constant Contact for purportedly inadequate consideration, engaging in a flawed sales process, omitting material information necessary for stockholders to make an informed vote, and agreeing to a number of purportedly preclusive deal protection devices. The Complaints sought, among other things, to rescind the acquisition, as well as an award of plaintiffs’ attorneys’ fees and costs in the action. The Complaints were consolidated on January 12, 2016. On December 5, 2016, plaintiff Myers filed a consolidated amended complaint (the “Amended Complaint”), which named as defendants the former Constant Contact directors and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC (“Morgan Stanley”), Constant Contact’s financial advisor for the acquisition. The Amended Complaint generally alleged breach of fiduciary duty by the former directors, and aiding and abetting the alleged breach by Morgan Stanley. The Constant Contact defendants filed a motion to dismiss the Amended Complaint on December 15, 2016 and an opening brief in support of the motion to dismiss on March 17, 2017. Plaintiff Myers filed an opposition brief to the motion to dismiss on May 17, 2017, and the Constant Contact defendants’ reply brief was filed on June 19, 2017. Oral argument took place on October 16, 2017 and the court gave the plaintiff 30 days to consider whether to withdraw the case or move forward and receive a decision on the motion to dismiss. On November 2, 2017, the court entered a Stipulation and Order dismissing the case.

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ITEM 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

Part II
 
ITEM 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market for Our Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters
Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “EIGI”. The following table shows the high and low sales price per share of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market for the periods indicated:
 
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
11.86

 
$
7.45

Second Quarter
$
11.55

 
$
8.37

Third Quarter
$
9.29

 
$
6.55

Fourth Quarter
$
9.75

 
$
6.60

Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
9.85

 
$
7.45

Second Quarter
$
8.80

 
$
6.20

Third Quarter
$
9.35

 
$
7.18

Fourth Quarter
$
9.50

 
$
7.65

Stockholders
As of January 31, 2018, there were approximately 33 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
Dividend Policy
We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be subject to the discretion of our board of directors and applicable law and will depend on various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, prospects and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Our credit agreement and the indenture governing our senior notes limit our ability to pay cash dividends on our common stock, and the terms of any future loan agreement into which we may enter or any additional debt securities we may issue are likely to contain similar restrictions on the payment of dividends.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plan
The information concerning our equity compensation plan is incorporated by reference from the information in our Proxy Statement for our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which we will file with the SEC within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year to which this Annual Report on Form 10-K relates.

Stock Performance Graph
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any filing of Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference in such filing.

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The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total return on our common stock to the cumulative total return of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the RDG Internet Composite Index from October 25, 2013 (the first date that shares of our common stock were publicly traded) through December 31, 2017. The comparison assumes $100 was invested after the market closed on October 25, 2013 in our common stock, and each of the foregoing indices, and it assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any.
The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.
 
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12076951&doc=18
 
*$100 invested on 10/25/13 in stock or 9/30/13 in index, including investment dividends.
 
 
Fiscal year ending December 31.
 
 
10/25/2013
12/31/2013
3/31/2014
6/30/2014
9/30/2014
12/31/2014
3/31/2015
6/30/2015
9/30/2015
12/31/2015
3/31/2016
6/30/2016
9/30/2016
12/31/2016
3/31/2017
6/30/2017
9/30/2017
12/31/2017
Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc.
$
100.00

$
126.04

$
115.64

$
135.91

$
144.62

$
163.82

$
169.42

$
183.64

$
118.76

$
97.16

$
93.60

$
79.91

$
77.78

$
82.67

$
69.78

$
74.22

$
72.89

$
74.67

NASDAQ Composite Index
$
100.00

$
111.18

$
112.27

$
118.33

$
120.71

$
127.24

$
131.81

$
134.77

$
125.36

$
136.07

$
132.86

$
132.48

$
145.28

$
146.95

$
161.91

$
168.61

$
178.54

$
190.20

RDG Internet Composite Index
$
100.00

$
118.76

$
113.69

$
118.29

$
122.31

$
115.69

$
124.20

$
129.45

$
135.12

$
163.23

$
156.35

$
158.57

$
181.70

$
171.45

$
196.64

$
214.09

$
226.89

$
246.62


Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 2014, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period. The comparability of the information in the table below is affected by acquisitions we completed during the periods shown, particularly the acquisition of Constant Contact in February 2016 and the related increase in our indebtedness to finance that acquisition. You should read the following selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 
Year Ended
December 31,
2014
 
Year Ended
December 31,
2015
 
Year Ended
December 31,
2016
 
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
 
 
(in thousands, except per share and share information)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
520,296

 
$
629,845

 
$
741,315

 
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

Cost of revenue (1)
 
350,103

 
381,488

 
425,035

 
583,991

 
603,930

Gross profit
 
170,193

 
248,357

 
316,280

 
527,151

 
572,937

Operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
117,689

 
146,797

 
145,419

 
303,511

 
277,460

Engineering and development(4)
 
23,205

 
19,549

 
26,707

 
87,601

 
78,772

General and administrative (3)
 
92,347

 
69,533

 
90,968

 
175,379

 
164,745

Impairment of goodwill
 

 

 

 

 
12,129

Total operating expense (2)
 
233,241

 
235,879

 
263,094

 
566,491

 
533,106

Income (loss) from operations
 
(63,048
)
 
12,478

 
53,186

 
(39,340
)
 
39,831

Total other expense, net
 
(98,327
)
 
(57,083
)
 
(52,974
)
 
(150,450
)
 
(157,006
)
Income (loss) before income taxes and equity earnings of unconsolidated entities
 
(161,375
)
 
(44,605
)
 
212

 
(189,790
)
 
(117,175
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
 
(3,596
)
 
6,186

 
11,342

 
(109,858
)
 
(17,281
)
Loss before equity earnings of unconsolidated entities
 
(157,779
)
 
(50,791
)
 
(11,130
)
 
(79,932
)
 
(99,894
)
Equity loss (income) of unconsolidated entities, net of tax
 
2,067

 
61

 
14,640

 
1,297

 
(110
)
Net loss
 
(159,846
)
 
(50,852
)
 
(25,770
)
 
(81,229
)
 
(99,784
)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
 
(659
)
 
(8,017
)
 

 
(8,398
)
 
7,524

Net loss attributable to Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc.
 
$
(159,187
)
 
$
(42,835
)
 
$
(25,770
)
 
$
(72,831
)
 
$
(107,308
)
Net loss per share attributable to Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. basic and diluted
 
$
(1.55
)
 
$
(0.34
)
 
$
(0.20
)
 
$
(0.55
)
 
$
(0.78
)
Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. basic and diluted
 
102,698,773

 
127,512,346

 
131,340,557

 
133,415,732

 
137,322,201

 
 
(1)
Includes stock-based compensation expense of $126,000, $0.5 million, $2.0 million, $5.9 million and $6.1 million, for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. Also includes amortization expense of $105.9 million, $102.7 million, $91.1 million, $143.6 million and $140.4 million for the years ended December 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. It also includes impairment of intangible assets of $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.
(2)
Includes stock-based compensation expense of $10.6 million, $15.5 million, $27.9 million, $52.4 million and $53.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively.
(3)
Includes transaction expenses of $38.7 million, $4.8 million, $9.6 million, $32.3 million, and $0.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively.
(4)
Includes impairment of intangible assets of $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.


 
 
 
 
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
66,815

 
$
32,379

 
$
33,030

 
$
53,596

 
$
66,493

Property and equipment, net
49,715

 
56,837

 
75,762

 
95,272

 
95,452

Working capital (deficit)
(160,511
)
 
(274,726
)
 
(370,335
)
 
(362,677
)
 
(359,222
)
Total assets
1,580,938

 
1,746,043

 
1,802,500

 
2,756,274

 
2,601,086

Current and long-term debt, net of original issuance discounts and deferred financing costs (1)
1,046,945

 
1,086,475

 
1,092,385

 
1,986,980

 
1,892,245

Current and long-term capital lease obligations

 
8,095

 
13,081

 
7,202

 
15,349

Total stockholders’ equity
155,262

 
174,496

 
179,674

 
124,383

 
83,005



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(1) Net of deferred financing costs of $0.4 million, $0.4 million, $1.0 million, $43.3 million and $37.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 and 2017, respectively, for the Company's retrospective adoption of ASU 2015-03: Interest—Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. The years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 are also net of original issuance discount of $25.9 million and $25.8 million, respectively.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve significant risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, such as those set forth in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.
Overview

We are a leading provider of cloud-based platform solutions designed to help small- and medium-sized businesses, or SMBs, succeed online. We serve approximately 5.051 million subscribers globally with a range of products and services that help SMBs get online, get found and grow their businesses.

All of our products and services fall into one of our three reportable segments, as follows:
Web Presence. Our web presence segment consists primarily of our web hosting brands, such as Bluehost and HostGator, and related products such as domain names, website security, website design tools and services, and e-commerce products.
Domain. Our domain segment consists of domain-focused brands such as Domain.com, ResellerClub and LogicBoxes as well as certain web hosting brands that are under common management with our domain-focused brands. This segment sells domain names and domain management services to resellers and end users, as well as premium domain names, and also generates advertising revenue from domain name parking. It also resells domain names and domain management services to our web presence segment.
Email Marketing. Our email marketing segment consists of Constant Contact email marketing tools and related products and our SinglePlatform digital storefront solution.

Our 2017 financial results reflected a year of transition as we turned our focus to attracting subscribers with higher long-term revenue potential and on improving the product, customer support and user experience for key strategic brands. Changes in revenue, net loss and net cash provided by operating activities are summarized below (in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
Revenue
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

Net loss
$
(81,229
)
 
$
(99,784
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
154,961

 
$
201,273


Revenue grew by 6% from 2016 due to higher revenue in our email marketing segment, which was driven primarily by a full year of Constant Contact revenue contribution in 2017 and the impact in 2016 of the write-down of Constant Contact deferred revenue to fair value as of the acquisition date, which we refer to as the Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment. This increase in email marketing revenue offset revenue declines in the web presence and domain segments.
Net loss widened in 2017 as compared to 2016, primarily due to lower income tax benefits and higher goodwill and other long-term asset impairment charges relative to 2016. These factors were partially offset by lower acquisition transaction costs and greater operating profits in our email marketing segment.
Net cash provided by operating activities grew by 30%, and was positively impacted by cash flows from the email marketing segment as well as lower acquisition and restructuring related payments relative to 2016. Our growth in cash flows allowed us to make voluntary debt principal payments of $66.0 million in 2017, which were in addition to required debt principal payments of $34.4 million made during the year.


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Table of Contents

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the 2017 Tax Act. Among other things, the 2017 Tax Act makes changes to U.S. federal tax rates; imposes significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest; imposes additional limitations on the utilization of net operating losses and the deductibility of executive compensation; allows for the expensing of certain capital expenditures; makes a number of changes impacting operations outside of the United States (including, but not limited to, the imposition of a one-time tax on accumulated post-1986 deferred foreign income that has not previously been subject to tax); and modifies the treatment of certain intercompany transactions. We have substantially completed our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, and determined that, in the near term, our non-cash deferred tax expenses will be favorably impacted due to the reduced tax rate, which led to a $16.9 million deferred tax benefit for fiscal year 2017, and our future deferred tax expenses associated with our net deferred tax liabilities will be reduced. Our longer-term current, or cash-based, income taxes will be unfavorably impacted by the disallowance of a portion of our interest expense, which will likely be partially offset by other provisions of the new law. We do not expect a meaningful change in our cash-based taxes in the next twelve months due to the net operating losses we have available to offset our U.S. taxable income.

Our total subscriber base decreased during 2017, due primarily to subscriber attrition in our non-strategic brands. These non-strategic brands are principally hosting brands, but also include our cloud backup brands and certain other products that we launched in in the past several years but have either discontinued or no longer actively market, which we refer to as "gateway" products. Subscriber counts are decreasing in these brands, and we are managing them to optimize cash flow rather than to acquire new subscribers. These brands had a negative impact on cash billings, changes in deferred revenue, revenue and subscriber growth in 2017. We expect total subscribers to continue to decrease for the foreseeable future.

We continue to be affected by competitive pressures across our business. In particular, we have seen increased competition for new subscribers through our marketing channels, which has resulted in higher costs to acquire new subscribers in 2017 as compared to 2016. Our focus in 2017 on acquiring subscribers with higher long-term revenue potential, which tend to be more expensive to acquire, has also contributed to increased subscriber acquisition costs.

In 2018, we plan to make engineering investments across our web presence, email marketing and domain businesses. We expect that these investments will focus primarily on enhancing our product capabilities and user experience. We also intend to invest in simplifying and integrating our operations in order to allow us to operate more effectively and efficiently.
Key Metrics
We use a number of metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate the operating and financial performance of our business, identify trends affecting our business, develop projections and make strategic business decisions:
 
total subscribers;
average revenue per subscriber ("ARPS");
adjusted EBITDA; and
free cash flow.
Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are non-GAAP financial measures. A non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of a company’s operating performance, financial position or cash flow that includes or excludes amounts that are included or excluded from the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. Our non-GAAP financial measures may not provide information that is directly comparable to that provided by other companies in our industry, as other companies in our industry may calculate non-GAAP financial results differently. In addition, there are limitations in using non-GAAP financial measures because they are not prepared in accordance with GAAP and exclude expenses that may have a material impact on our reported financial results. For example, adjusted EBITDA excludes interest expense, which has been and will continue to be for the foreseeable future a significant recurring expense in our business. The presentation of non-GAAP financial information is not meant to be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, the directly comparable financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. We urge you to review the additional information about adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow shown below, including the reconciliations of these non-GAAP financial measures to their comparable GAAP financial measures, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
The table below summarizes total subscribers, ARPS and Adjusted EBITDA by segment for the periods presented (in thousands, except ARPS). For a discussion of free cash flow, see "Liquidity and Capital Resources."
 

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Table of Contents

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Consolidated metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
Total subscribers
4,669

 
5,371

 
5,051

Average subscribers
4,358

 
5,283

 
5,211

Average revenue per subscriber
$
14.18

 
$
17.53

 
$
18.82

Adjusted EBITDA
$
219,249

 
$
288,396

 
$
350,814

 
 
 
 
 
 
Web presence segment metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
Total subscribers
4,186

 
4,198

 
3,849

Average subscribers
3,972

 
4,233

 
4,024

Average revenue per subscriber
$
12.52

 
$
12.77

 
$
13.29

Adjusted EBITDA
$
194,611

 
$
153,766

 
$
158,187

 
 
 
 
 
 
Email marketing segment metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
Total subscribers

 
544

 
519

Average subscribers

 
494

 
531

Average revenue per subscriber
$

 
$
55.11

 
$
62.92

Adjusted EBITDA
$

 
$
116,261

 
$
185,869

 
 
 
 
 
 
Domain segment metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
Total subscribers
483


629


683

Average subscribers
386


556


656

Average revenue per subscriber
$
31.22


$
20.34


$
16.98

Adjusted EBITDA
$
24,638

 
$
18,369

 
$
6,758


Figures for the year ended December 31, 2016 include the impact of Constant Contact since February 10, 2016, the day after the closing of the acquisition.

Total Subscribers

We define total subscribers as the approximate number of subscribers that, as of the end of a period, are identified as subscribing directly to our products on a paid basis, excluding accounts that access our solutions via resellers or that purchase only domain names from us. Subscribers of more than one brand, and subscribers with more than one distinct billing relationship or subscription with us, are counted as separate subscribers. Total subscribers for a period reflects adjustments to add or subtract subscribers as we integrate acquisitions and/or are otherwise able to identify subscribers that meet, or do not meet, this definition of total subscribers. We refer to these adjustments in this discussion of total subscribers as “Adjustments.” For the fourth quarter of 2017, Adjustments had a net negative impact on our total subscriber count of approximately 700 subscribers, which consisted of net negative Adjustments of approximately 65,600 to core subscribers, offset by net positive Adjustments of approximately 64,900 to light web presence subscribers, which are further discussed below. For 2017 as a whole, Adjustments had a net positive impact of approximately 7,000 subscribers, as shown in the table below.

Most of our web presence segment subscribers have hosting subscriptions, but web presence subscribers also include customers who do not have a web hosting subscription but subscribe to other non-hosting services such as email or domain privacy. These subscribers generally have lower-priced subscriptions than hosting subscribers.

Domain segment subscribers mostly consist of customers who have a domain name subscription as well as a subscription to another product, such as domain privacy, or a basic hosting or email service that is bundled with their domain subscription. We refer to these subscribers, along with the non-hosting web presence segment subscribers discussed above, as "light web presence" subscribers. Light web presence subscribers generally have lower long-term revenue potential than other subscribers. As of December 31, 2017, we had a total of approximately 580,000 light web presence subscribers, a majority of which were associated with our domain segment. Also included as domain segment subscribers are hosting customers of our BigRock and HostGator India brands and certain other small web hosting brands that are under common management with our domain-focused brands.


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Table of Contents

The table below shows the approximate sources of changes in our total subscriber count by segment during 2016 and 2017 (all numbers in thousands). “Acquisitions” refers to the number of total subscribers we acquired due to acquisitions that we completed during the relevant year, as measured at the time of the acquisition. Adjustments below are shown on a full year basis.
 
Web Presence
Domain
Email Marketing
Total
 
# subscribers
# subscribers
# subscribers
# subscribers
Total Subscribers - December 31, 2015
4,186

483


4,669

Acquisitions
86


566

652

Light web presence subscribers

62


62

Adjustments
(12
)
71


59

Core subscriber growth
(62
)
13

(22
)
(71
)
Total Subscribers - December 31, 2016
4,198

629

544

5,371

Acquisitions




Light web presence subscribers
16

18


34

Adjustments
(19
)
26


7

Core subscriber growth
(346
)
10

(25
)
(361
)
Total Subscribers - December 31, 2017
3,849

683

519

5,051

The decrease in total subscribers from 5.371 million at December 31, 2016 to 5.051 million at December 31, 2017 was driven primarily by subscriber losses in non-strategic brands in our web presence segment and, to a lesser extent, by subscriber losses in our email marketing segment. The decrease was partially offset by increases in light web presence subscribers in the domain and web presence segments, and by positive Adjustments in the domain segment, which were primarily related to light web presence subscribers.

The increase in total subscribers from 4.669 million at December 31, 2015 to 5.371 million at December 31, 2016 was primarily attributable to the acquisition of Constant Contact and other acquisitions during 2016. Positive Adjustments in the domain segment, which increased the number of light web presence subscribers, and other increases in light web presence subscribers within the domain segment also contributed. The increase was partially offset by core subscriber losses in the web presence segment.

We expect total subscribers to continue to decrease during 2018, due primarily to the impact of subscriber churn in non-strategic web presence brands.
Average Revenue per Subscriber

We calculate average revenue per subscriber, or ARPS, as the amount of revenue we recognize in a period, including marketing development funds and other revenue not received from subscribers, divided by the average of the number of total subscribers at the beginning of the period and at the end of the period, which we refer to as average subscribers for the period, divided by the number of months in the period. For our web presence and email marketing segments, we believe ARPS is an indicator of our ability to optimize our mix of products, services and pricing to both new and existing subscribers. For our domain segment, ARPS may fluctuate from period to period due to changes in the amount of non-subscriber based revenue, reseller activity and other factors impacting this segment as discussed in more detail below.

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Table of Contents

The following table reflects the calculation of ARPS (all data in thousands, except ARPS data):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Consolidated revenue
$
741,315

 
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

Consolidated total subscribers
4,669

 
5,371

 
5,051

Consolidated average subscribers for the period
4,358

 
5,283

 
5,211

Consolidated average revenue per subscriber (ARPS)
$
14.18

 
$
17.53

 
$
18.82

 
 
 
 
 
 
Web presence revenue
$
596,687

 
$
648,732

 
$
641,993

Web presence subscribers
4,186

 
4,198

 
3,849

Web presence average subscribers
3,972

 
4,233

 
4,024

Web presence ARPS
$
12.52

 
$
12.77

 
$
13.29

 
 
 
 
 
 
Email marketing revenue
$

 
$
326,808

 
$
401,250

Email marketing subscribers

 
544

 
519

Email marketing average subscribers

 
494

 
531

Email marketing ARPS
$

 
$
55.11

 
$
62.92

 
 
 
 
 
 
Domain revenue
$
144,628

 
$
135,602

 
$
133,624

Domain subscribers
483

 
629

 
683

Domain average subscribers
386

 
556

 
656

Domain ARPS
$
31.22

 
$
20.34

 
$
16.98


ARPS does not represent an exact measure of the average amount a subscriber spends with us each month, because our calculation of ARPS includes all of our revenue, including revenue generated by non-subscribers, in the numerator. We have three principal sources of non-subscriber revenue:
Revenue from domain-only customers. Our web presence and domain segments each earn revenue from domain-only customers. For our web presence segment, 0.8% of our fiscal year 2017 revenue was earned from domain only customers. For our domain segment, approximately 4.6% of our revenue for fiscal year 2017 was earned from domain only customers.
Domain monetization revenue. This consists principally of revenue from our BuyDomains brand, which provides premium domain name products and services, and, to a lesser extent, revenue from advertisements placed on unused domains (often referred to as “parked” pages) owned by us or our customers. A significant portion of this revenue is associated with our domain segment.
Revenue from marketing development funds. Marketing development funds are the amounts that certain of our partners pay us to assist in and incentivize our marketing of their products.
A portion of our revenue is generated from customers that resell our services. We refer to these customers as “resellers.” We consider these resellers (rather than the end user customers of these resellers) to be subscribers under our total subscribers definition, because we do not have a billing relationship with the end users and cannot determine the number of end users acquiring our services through a reseller. A majority of our reseller revenue is for the purchase of domains and is primarily related to our domain segment. Approximately 40% of domain segment revenue is earned from resellers. Reseller revenue earned by our web presence segment and our email marketing segment has been less than 5% and 1%, respectively, for all periods presented, and fluctuations in reseller revenue have not materially impacted ARPS for these segments.

Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2016 and 2017: ARPS

For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, consolidated ARPS increased from $17.53 to $18.82, respectively. This increase in ARPS was driven primarily by our email marketing segment, and to a lesser extent, a focus on higher lifetime revenue subscribers in our web presence segment. These increases in ARPS were partially offset by lower ARPS in our domain segment.


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Table of Contents

Web presence ARPS increased from $12.77 to $13.29 for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to a shift in our marketing programs away from targeting subscribers for our lower priced gateway products, and towards targeting subscribers who have higher lifetime revenue potential. This shift in focus has resulted in a loss of subscribers of lower priced products, resulting in an overall increase in ARPS. Non-subscriber revenue, which includes domain monetization and marketing development funds, increased slightly from $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $8.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, causing ARPS to increase by $0.01. Light web presence subscribers, which generally purchase lower priced products, are less than 5% of total subscribers for this segment, and the increase in these subscribers during 2017 did not materially impact ARPS.

Email marketing APRS increased from $55.11 to $62.92 for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to the Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment during 2016, which represents the reduction of post-acquisition revenue from the write-down of deferred revenue to fair value as of the acquisition date. The Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment reduced email marketing segment revenue during the year ended December 31, 2016 by $15.2 million and resulted in a negative impact on ARPS of $2.56. The remaining increase in ARPS was primarily attributable to additional purchases by existing subscribers, including price increases.

Domain APRS decreased from $20.34 to $16.98 for the year ended December 31, 2017. This decrease was primarily due to increases in light web presence subscribers, which generally acquire lower priced products. In addition, a decrease in non-subscriber revenue, including domain monetization and marketing development funds, from $30.1 million for fiscal year 2016 to $27.6 million for fiscal year 2017, decreased ARPS by $1.00.
        
Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2015 and 2016: ARPS

Web presence ARPS increased from $12.52 to $12.77 for the year ended December 31, 2016 due primarily to a loss of subscribers of lower priced products, resulting in an overall increase in ARPS. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in non-subscriber revenue, including domain monetization and marketing development funds, from $11.7 million for 2015 to $8.4 million for 2016 which reduced ARPS by $0.08.

Email marketing ARPS was $55.11 for the year ended December 31, 2016, and was adversely impacted by the Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment, which reduced revenue and negatively impacted recognized revenue for this segment by $15.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2016, resulting in a reduction in ARPS of $2.56.

Domain ARPS decreased from $31.22 to $20.34 for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease was primarily due to increases in light web presence subscribers, which generally acquire lower priced products. In addition, a decrease in non-subscriber revenue, including domain monetization and marketing development funds, from $40.4 million for fiscal year 2015 to $30.1 million for fiscal year 2016, decreased ARPS by $4.17. The decrease in non-subscriber revenue was primarily related to fewer high-value domains available for sale in our BuyDomains portfolio as compared to 2015.

  Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that we calculate as net income (loss), excluding the impact of
interest expense (net), income tax expense (benefit), depreciation, amortization of other intangible assets, stock-based compensation, restructuring expenses, transaction expenses and charges, (gain) loss of unconsolidated entities, impairment of other long-lived assets, and SEC investigations reserve (which refers to an $8.0 million reserve we recorded in the third quarter of 2017 in connection with ongoing discussions with the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") to resolve potential claims arising from the investigations initiated against Endurance and Constant Contact in December 2015) . We view adjusted EBITDA as a performance measure and believe it helps investors evaluate and compare our core operating performance from period to period.
The following table reflects the reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net loss calculated in accordance with GAAP for the periods presented.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Consolidated
(in thousands)
Net loss
$
(25,770
)
 
$
(81,229
)
 
$
(99,784
)
Interest expense, net(1)
58,414

 
152,312

 
156,406


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Income tax expense (benefit)
11,342

 
(109,858
)
 
(17,281
)
Depreciation
34,010

 
60,360

 
55,185

Amortization of other intangible assets
91,057

 
143,562

 
140,354

Stock-based compensation
29,925

 
58,267

 
60,001

Restructuring expenses
1,489

 
24,224

 
15,810

Transaction expenses and charges
9,582

 
32,284

 
773

(Gain) loss of unconsolidated entities(2)
9,200

 
(565
)
 
(110
)
Impairment of other long-lived assets

 
9,039

 
31,460

SEC investigations reserve

 

 
8,000

Adjusted EBITDA
$
219,249

 
$
288,396

 
$
350,814

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Web presence
(in thousands)
Net loss
$
(34,049
)
 
$
(24,382
)
 
$
(70,375
)
Interest expense, net(1)
56,663

 
68,617

 
67,491

Income tax expense (benefit)
12,756

 
(79,632
)
 
2,575

Depreciation
31,947

 
33,590

 
37,634

Amortization of other intangible assets
83,106

 
72,733

 
60,277

Stock-based compensation
25,513

 
41,481

 
46,641

Restructuring expenses
1,210

 
1,625

 
9,131

Transaction expenses and charges
8,265

 
31,260

 

(Gain) loss of unconsolidated entities(2)
9,200

 
(565
)
 
(110
)
Impairment of other long-lived assets

 
9,039

 
600

SEC investigations reserve

 

 
4,323

Adjusted EBITDA
$
194,611

 
$
153,766

 
$
158,187

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Email marketing
(in thousands)
Net loss
$

 
$
(55,857
)
 
$
(10,615
)
Interest expense, net(1)

 
81,469

 
86,914

Income tax expense (benefit)

 
(33,543
)
 
5,152

Depreciation

 
23,747

 
13,912

Amortization of other intangible assets

 
64,679

 
74,467

Stock-based compensation

 
12,403

 
6,934

Restructuring expenses

 
22,379

 
5,581

Transaction expenses and charges

 
984

 
773

SEC investigations reserve

 

 
2,751

Adjusted EBITDA
$

 
$
116,261

 
$
185,869

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Domain
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)
$
8,279

 
(990
)
 
(18,794
)
Interest expense, net(1)
1,751

 
2,226

 
2,001

Income tax expense (benefit)
(1,414
)
 
3,317

 
(25,008
)
Depreciation
2,063

 
3,023

 
3,639


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Amortization of other intangible assets
7,951

 
6,150

 
5,610

Stock-based compensation
4,412

 
4,383

 
6,426

Restructuring expenses
279

 
220

 
1,098

Transaction expenses and charges
1,317

 
40

 

Impairment of other long-lived assets

 

 
30,860

SEC investigations reserve

 

 
926

Adjusted EBITDA
$
24,638

 
$
18,369

 
$
6,758


(1)
Interest expense includes impact of amortization of deferred financing costs, original issuance discounts and interest income. For the year ended December 31, 2017, it also includes $6.5 million of deferred financing costs and original issuance discounts (OID) immediately expensed upon the refinancing of our term loan in 2017, or the 2017 Refinancing.
(2)
For all years presented, (gain) loss of unconsolidated entities is reported on a net basis, which includes our proportionate share of net (income) losses from unconsolidated entities, any (gain) loss recorded when we acquired our controlling interest in these entities and any impairments related to these entities. The loss on unconsolidated entities for the year ended December 31, 2015 was partially offset by a $5.4 million gain recorded upon our acquisition of a controlling interest in World Wide Web Hosting (Site5). The year ended December 31, 2016 includes an $11.4 million gain recorded upon our controlling interest in WZ (UK), Ltd., a loss of $4.8 million upon our acquisition of a controlling interest in AppMachine B.V., and a loss of $4.7 million on the impairment of our 33% equity investment in Fortifico Limited.

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2017: Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA

Net loss on a consolidated basis increased from $81.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $99.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase in net loss was primarily due to an increased net loss from our web presence segment of $46.0 million and an increased net loss in our domain segment of $17.8 million. These increases in net loss were partially offset by a decrease in email marketing segment net loss of $45.3 million. Theses changes in segment net loss were significantly impacted by changes in income tax benefits, impairment charges, the SEC investigations reserve, and changes in stock-based compensation and restructuring charges, as described more fully below.

Net loss for our web presence segment increased from $24.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $70.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in net loss was primarily related to a decrease in our income tax benefit of $82.2 million, higher restructuring charges of $7.5 million, a $6.7 million decrease in revenue, higher stock-based compensation of $5.2 million and an allocation of the SEC investigations reserve of $4.3 million in 2017. These factors were partially offset by lower acquisition transaction costs of $31.3 million and lower marketing expense of $31.4 million as we reduced spending on our gateway products.

Net loss for our email marketing segment decreased from $55.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $10.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily related to lower costs as a result of the Constant Contact 2016 restructuring plan, including lower restructuring costs of $16.8 million, and the inclusion of Constant Contact for a full twelve months in fiscal year 2017.

Net loss for our domain segment increased from $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $18.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to $30.9 million of impairment charges related to both goodwill and long-lived assets, increased net loss of $7.4 million related to our international expansion efforts, lower revenue of $2.0 million mainly related to domain monetization, increased stock-based compensation expense of $2.0 million, and an allocation of the SEC investigations reserve of $0.9 million. These factors were partially offset by an increased income tax benefit of $28.3 million.

Adjusted EBITDA on a consolidated basis increased from $288.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $350.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Substantially all of this increase is attributable to our email marketing segment as described below.

Adjusted EBITDA for our web presence segment increased from $153.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $158.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was attributable to a $31.4 million decrease in sales and marketing expense, which primarily consisted of reduced expenditures on gateway products and other non-strategic brands. This was partially offset by a $6.7 million decline in revenue, increased engineering expense of $8.9 million, higher domain registration costs of $4.7 million and $3.9 million of costs to transition customer support formerly based in Utah to our Arizona customer support center, which we refer to as the "customer support consolidation."


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Adjusted EBITDA for our email marketing segment increased from $116.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $185.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily attributable to $15.7 million of revenue growth (which includes the impact of price increases), the negative $15.2 million impact of the Constant Contact purchase adjustment in 2016, and the inclusion of Constant Contact results for the entire year in fiscal year 2017, which increased adjusted EBITDA by $7.9 million. The remainder of the increase related mostly to cost reduction actions implemented during fiscal year 2016.

Adjusted EBITDA for our domain segment decreased from $18.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $6.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This decrease was attributable to a $2.0 million decrease in revenue, most of which related to domain monetization, combined with a $7.4 million increase in net loss, which related primarily to our international expansion efforts.

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2015 and 2016: Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA

Net loss on a consolidated basis increased from $25.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $81.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This increase in net loss was primarily due to a $93.9 million increase in interest expense, incurred mainly to acquire Constant Contact, a $80.5 million increase in operating losses for our web presence segment, a $7.9 million increase in operating losses from our email marketing segment due to the acquisition of Constant Contact, and a $4.1 million increase in operating losses for our domain segment. The increase in operating losses for all of our segments were materially impacted by transaction costs incurred to acquire Constant Contact, increased stock-based compensation charges, increased restructuring charges primarily incurred to integrate Constant Contact, and impairment charges, as described more fully below.

Net loss for our web presence segment decreased from $34.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $24.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease was primarily due to the $79.6 million tax benefit recorded for the 2016 period as compared to the $12.8 million expense for the 2015 period, which resulted in a $92.4 million decrease in the web presence net loss, lower amortization expense of $10.4 million, reduced losses from unconsolidated entities of $9.8 million and improved operating profit from certain web presence products of approximately $16.0 million. These factors were partially offset by $59.0 million in net losses, which is net of revenue earned, to launch our new gateway products; $23.0 million of higher transaction costs to acquire Constant Contact; higher stock-based compensation expense of $16.0 million, mainly due to increased grants of awards; increased interest expense of $12.0 million; and impairment charges of $9.0 million.

Net loss for our email marketing segment for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $55.9 million, all of which was attributable to our acquisition of Constant Contact.

Net income for our domain segment decreased from $8.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to a net loss of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease was primarily attributable to an increase in income tax expense of $4.7 million and a decrease in revenue of $9.0 million, mostly due to lower domain monetization revenue. These factors were partially offset by lower amortization of intangible assets of $1.8 million, lower acquisition transaction costs of $1.3 million, and lower depreciation expense of $1.0 million.        

Adjusted EBITDA on a consolidated basis increased from $219.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $288.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Substantially all of this increase was attributable to our email marketing segment due to the acquisition of Constant Contact, which was partially offset by losses incurred by our web presence segment to launch new gateway products.

Adjusted EBITDA for our web presence segment decreased from $194.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $153.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily due to higher marketing investments, primarily related to our gateway products, which negatively impacted adjusted EBITDA by $55.1 million.

Adjusted EBITDA for our email marketing segment for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $116.3 million, and is entirely attributable to our acquisition of Constant Contact. Email marketing adjusted EBITDA was adversely impacted by the Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment, which decreased revenue by $15.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Email marketing adjusted EBITDA for the pre-acquisition period from January 1, 2016 through February 9, 2016 was $7.9 million. Email marketing adjusted EBITDA separately reported by Constant Contact (adjusted to conform to our definition of adjusted EBITDA) for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $72.4 million. The increase in email marketing adjusted EBITDA was primarily the result of cost reductions from the Constant Contact 2016 restructuring plan. The following table reflects the reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net loss calculated in accordance with GAAP for Constant Contact for

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the pre-acquisition periods from January 1, 2016 through February 9, 2016 and for the year ended December 31, 2015:
 
Email marketing segment
 
For the pre-acquisition period from January 1, 2016 through February 9, 2016
 
For the pre-acquisition year ended December 31, 2015
 
 
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)
$
(8,038
)
 
$
19,190

 
Interest expense (income), net

 
(317
)
 
Income tax expense (benefit)
(6,023
)
 
7,998

 
Depreciation
2,721

 
23,313

 
Amortization of other intangible assets
138

 
1,583

 
Stock-based compensation
1,809

 
18,040

 
Transaction expenses and charges
17,281

 
2,561

 
Adjusted EBITDA
$
7,888

 
$
72,368

 

Adjusted EBITDA for our domain segment decreased from $24.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $18.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily due to a reduction in revenue from this segment, combined with an increase in general and administrative expense.

Free Cash Flow

For a discussion of free cash flow, see "Liquidity and Capital Resources."
Components of Operating Results
Revenue
We generate revenue primarily from selling subscriptions for our cloud-based products and services. The subscriptions we offer are similar across all of our brands and are provided under contracts pursuant to which we have ongoing obligations to support the subscriber. These contracts are generally for service periods of up to 36 months and typically require payment in advance at the time of initiating the subscription for the entire subscription period. Typically, we also have arrangements in place to auto renew a subscription at the end of the subscription period. Due to factors such as introductory pricing, our renewal fees may be higher than our initial subscription. Our web presence segment and domain segment sell more subscriptions with 12 month terms than with any other term length, while our email marketing segment sells subscriptions that are mostly one-month terms. We also earn revenue from the sale of domain name registrations, premium domains and non-term based products and services, such as certain online security products and professional technical services as well as through referral fees and commissions.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes costs of operating our subscriber support organization, fees we pay to register domain names for our subscribers, costs of operating our data center infrastructure, such as technical personnel costs associated with monitoring and maintaining our network operations, fees we pay to third-party product and service providers, and merchant fees we pay as part of our billing processes. We also allocate to cost of revenue the depreciation and amortization related to these activities and the intangible assets we have acquired, as well as a portion of our overhead costs attributable to our employees engaged in subscriber support activities. In addition, cost of revenue includes stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in support and network operations. We generally expect cost of revenue to decrease as a percentage of revenue due to decreasing amortization expense on our intangible assets.
Gross Profit
Gross profit is the difference between revenue and cost of revenue. Gross profit has fluctuated from period to period in large part as a result of revenue and cost of revenue adjustments from purchase accounting impacts related to acquisitions, as well as revenue and cost of revenue impacts from growth in our business. With respect to revenue, the application of purchase accounting requires us to record purchase accounting adjustments for acquired deferred revenue, which reduces the revenue recorded from acquisitions for a period of time after the acquisition. The impact generally normalizes within a year following the acquisition. With respect to cost of revenue, the application of purchase accounting requires us to defer domain registration costs, which reduces cost of revenue, and record long-lived assets at fair value, which increases cost of revenue through an

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increase in amortization expense over the estimated useful life of the long-lived assets. In addition, our revenue and our cost of revenue have increased in recent years as our subscriber base has expanded. For a new subscriber that we bring on to our platform, we typically recognize revenue over the term of the subscription, even though we collect the subscription fee at the initial billing. As a result, our gross profit may be affected by the prices we charge for our subscriptions, as well as by the number of new subscribers and the terms of their subscriptions. We expect our gross profit to increase in absolute dollars in future periods, and that our gross profit margin will also increase as amortization expense related to our intangible assets declines.
Operating Expense
We classify our operating expense into three categories: sales and marketing, engineering and development, and general and administrative. In 2016, we started breaking out transaction expense due to the significance of the costs incurred to acquire Constant Contact. In 2017, we started breaking out impairment of goodwill due to the significance of the charge incurred in our domain segment.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense primarily consists of costs associated with bounty payments to our network of online partners, SEM and SEO, general awareness and brand building activities, as well as the cost of employees engaged in sales and marketing activities. Sales and marketing expense also includes costs associated with sales of products as well as stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in sales and marketing activities. Sales and marketing expense as a percentage of revenue may increase or decrease in a given period, depending on the cost of attracting new subscribers to our solutions, changes in how we invest in different subscriber acquisition channels, changes in how we approach SEM and SEO and the extent of general awareness and brand building activities we may undertake, as well as the efficiency of our sales and support personnel and our ability to sell more products and services to our subscribers and drive favorable returns on invested marketing dollars.
Engineering and Development
Engineering and development expense includes the cost of employees engaged in enhancing our technology platform and our systems, developing and expanding product and service offerings, and integrating technology capabilities from our acquisitions. Engineering and development expense includes stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in engineering and development activities. Our engineering and development expense does not include costs of leasing and operating our data center infrastructure, such as technical personnel costs associated with monitoring and maintaining our network operations and fees we pay to third-party product and service providers, which are included in cost of revenue.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expense includes the cost of employees engaged in corporate functions, such as finance and accounting, human resources, legal and executive management. General and administrative expense also includes all facility and related overhead costs not allocated to cost of revenue, as well as insurance premiums, professional service fees, and costs incurred related to regulatory and litigation matters. General and administrative expense also includes stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in general and administrative activities.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of costs related to, and interest paid on, our indebtedness. We include in our calculation of interest expense the cash cost of interest payments and loan financing fees, the amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discounts and the amortization of the net present value adjustment which we may apply to some deferred consideration payments related to our acquisitions in our calculation of interest expense. Interest income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents balances.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
We estimate our income taxes in accordance with the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and the financial statements that are prepared in accordance with tax regulations for the purpose of filing our income tax returns, using statutory tax rates. This methodology requires us to record a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expense during the reported periods. We base our estimates, judgments and assumptions on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from the estimates, judgments and assumptions made by our management. To the extent that there are differences between our estimates, judgments and assumptions and our actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be affected.

Please see Note 2 of Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of recently issued accounting pronouncements.
We believe that the following significant accounting policies, which are more fully described in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations. We believe that our critical accounting policies and estimates are the assumptions and estimates associated with the following:
 
revenue recognition,
goodwill,
long-lived assets,
business combinations,
derivative instruments,
depreciation and amortization,
income taxes,
stock-based compensation arrangements, and
segment information.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue primarily from selling subscriptions to our cloud-based products and services. The subscriptions we offer are similar across all of our brands and are provided under contracts pursuant to which we have ongoing obligations to support the subscriber. These contracts are generally for service periods of up to 36 months and typically require payment in advance. We recognize the associated revenue ratably over the service period, whether the associated revenue is derived from a direct subscriber or through a reseller. Deferred revenue represents the liability to subscribers for advance billings for services not yet provided and the fair value of the assumed liability outstanding for subscriber relationships purchased in an acquisition.
We sell domain name registrations that provide a subscriber with the exclusive use of a domain name. These domains are obtained either by one of our registrars on the subscriber’s behalf, or by us from third-party registrars on the subscriber’s behalf. Domain registration fees are non-refundable.
Revenue from the sale of a domain name registration by one of our registrars is recognized ratably over the subscriber’s service period as we have the obligation to provide support over the domain term. Revenue from the sale of a domain name registration purchased by us from a third-party registrar is recognized when the subscriber is billed on a gross basis as we have no remaining obligations once the sale to the subscriber occurs, and we have full discretion on the sales price and bear all credit risk.
Revenue from the sale of premium domains is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement to sell such domains exists, delivery of an authorization key to access the domain name has occurred, the fee for the sale of the premium domain is fixed or determinable, and collection of the fee for the sale of the premium domain is deemed probable.

We also earn revenue from the sale of non-term based products and services, such as online security products and professional technical services, referral fees and commissions. We recognize such revenue when the product is purchased, the service is provided or the referral fee or commission is earned.
A substantial amount of our revenue is generated from transactions that are multiple-element service arrangements that may include hosting plans, domain name registrations, and other cloud-based products and services.

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We follow the provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-13, or ASU 2009-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605), Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements—a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force, and allocate revenue to each deliverable in a multiple- element service arrangement based on its respective relative selling price.
Under ASU 2009-13, to treat deliverables in a multiple-element service arrangement as separate units of accounting, the deliverables must have standalone value upon delivery. If the deliverables have standalone value upon delivery, we account for each deliverable separately. Web presence services, domain name registrations, cloud-based products and services have standalone value and are often sold separately.
When multiple deliverables included in a multiple-element service arrangement are separated into different units of accounting, the total transaction amount is allocated to the identified separate units based on a relative selling price hierarchy. We determine the relative selling price for a deliverable based on vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of fair value, if available, or best estimate of selling price, or BESP, if VSOE is not available. We have determined that third-party evidence of coselling price, or TPE, is not a practical alternative due to differences in our multi-brand offerings compared to competitors and the availability of relevant third-party pricing information. We have not established VSOE for our offerings due to lack of pricing consistency, the introduction of new products, services and other factors. Accordingly, we generally allocate revenue to the deliverables in the arrangement based on the BESP. We determine BESP by considering our relative selling prices, competitive prices in the marketplace and management judgment; these selling prices, however, may vary depending upon the particular facts and circumstances related to each deliverable. We analyze the selling prices used in our allocation of transaction amount, at a minimum, on a quarterly basis. Selling prices will be analyzed on a more frequent basis if a significant change in our business necessitates a more timely analysis.
We maintain a reserve for refunds and chargebacks related to revenue that has been recognized and is expected to be refunded. We had a refund and chargeback reserve of $0.6 million and $0.5 million as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The portion of deferred revenue that is expected to be refunded at December 31, 2016 and 2017 was $2.1 million and $1.8 million, respectively. Based on refund history, approximately 83% of all refunds happen in the same fiscal month that the customer contract starts or renews, and approximately 96% of all refunds happen within 45 days of the contract start or renewal date.
Goodwill
Goodwill relates to amounts that arose in connection with our various acquisitions and represents the difference between the purchase price and the fair value of the identifiable intangible and tangible net assets when accounted for using the purchase method of accounting. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to periodic review for impairment. Events that would indicate impairment and trigger an interim impairment assessment include, but are not limited to, current economic and market conditions, a decline in the equity value of the business, a significant adverse change in certain agreements that would materially affect reported operating results, business climate or operational performance of the business and an adverse action or assessment by a regulator.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-08, or ASU 2011-08, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Testing Goodwill for Impairment, we are required to review goodwill by reporting unit for impairment at least annually or more often if there are indicators of impairment present. A reporting unit is either the equivalent of, or one level below, an operating segment. During 2016, we determined that we have two reporting units. We have historically performed our annual goodwill test as of December 31st of each fiscal year. Our goodwill impairment test of our two reporting units as of December 31, 2016 followed a two-step process. In the first step, we compared the fair value of each reporting unit to which goodwill has been allocated to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded the carrying value of the net assets assigned to that reporting unit, goodwill was considered not impaired and we were not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to the reporting unit exceeded the fair value of the reporting unit, then we performed the second step of the impairment test to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeded its implied fair value, then we recorded an impairment loss equal to the difference. As of December 31, 2016, the fair value of both of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values and, therefore, no impairment existed as of that date.
As a result of changes in our management structure during fiscal year 2017, including the change in our chief executive officer, we have revised our internal financial reporting structure, which has resulted in a change to our reporting units. We have identified a total of ten reporting units under our new structure. With the increase in reporting units, we determined that more time would be required to perform future goodwill impairment tests, and as a result, decided to accelerate our annual goodwill impairment test date to October 31st of each fiscal year, starting with the fiscal year 2017 test.

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Before testing goodwill at October 31, 2017, we allocated assets and liabilities to their respective reporting units. Goodwill was allocated to each reporting unit in accordance with ASC 350-20-40, which requires that goodwill be allocated based on the relative fair values of each reporting unit. After completing this valuation process, we allocated goodwill to seven reporting units. We did not allocate any goodwill to three smaller reporting units that were determined to have no material fair value.
The carrying value of each reporting unit is based on the assignment of the appropriate assets and liabilities to each reporting unit. Assets and liabilities were assigned to our reporting units if the assets or liabilities are employed in the operations of the reporting unit and the asset and liability is considered in the determination of the reporting unit fair value. Certain assets and liabilities are shared by multiple reporting units, and were allocated to each reporting unit based on the relative size of a reporting unit, primarily based on revenue.
The fair value of each reporting unit is determined by the income approach. We also compared the fair value from the income approach to a market based approach to validate that the value derived from the income approach was reasonable. For the income approach, fair value is determined based on the present value of estimated future after-tax cash flows, discounted at an appropriate risk adjusted rate. We use our internal forecasts to estimate future after-tax cash flows and include an estimate of long-term future growth rates based on our view of long-term outlook for each reporting unit. Actual results may differ from those assumed in our forecasts.
We derive our discount rates using a capital asset pricing model and analyzing published rates for industries relevant to our reporting units to estimate the weighted average cost of capital. We use discount rates that are commensurate with the risks and uncertainty inherent in our business and in our internally developed forecasts. For fiscal year 2017, we used a discount rate of 10.0%, and also performed sensitivity analysis on our discount rates. For the market approach validation, we use a valuation technique in which values are derived based on valuation multiples from sales of comparable companies.
We have also early adopted the provisions of ASU 2017-4, which eliminates the second step of the goodwill impairment test. As a result, our goodwill impairment test as of October 31, 2017 includes only one step, which is a comparison of the carrying value of each reporting unit to its fair value, and any excess carrying value, up to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit, is impaired. Our goodwill impairment test as of October 31, 2017 resulted in a $12.1 impairment of goodwill to our domain monetization reporting unit within our domain segment. The impairment is a direct result of a more rapid decline in domain parking revenue than originally expected, and to a lesser extent, reduced sales of premium domain names. Goodwill for this reporting unit has been completely impaired. Goodwill allocated to the other six reporting units was not impaired.
Our goodwill as of December 31, 2017 is $1,850.6 million. Approximately $1,820.7 million of our goodwill relates to reporting units with a fair value that exceeds each reporting units carrying value by at least 20%. One of our reporting units, our domain.com reporting unit within our domain segment, has a goodwill balance of $29.9 million, and a fair value fair value that exceeds its carrying value by 6%. We have one reporting unit, our backup reporting unit that is within our web presence segment, that has a negative carrying value and has been allocated $2.3 million of goodwill.
Long-Lived Assets
Our long-lived assets consist primarily of intangible assets, including acquired subscriber relationships, trade names, intellectual property, developed technology, domain names available for sale and in-process research and development ("IPR&D"). We also have long-lived tangible assets, primarily consisting of property and equipment. The majority of our intangible assets have been recorded in connection with our acquisitions, including the acquisition of a controlling interest in our company by investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus and Goldman, Sachs & Co, which we refer to as the Sponsor Acquisition. We record intangible assets at fair value at the time of their acquisition. We amortize intangible assets over their estimated useful lives.
Our determination of the estimated useful lives of the individual categories of intangible assets is based on the nature of the applicable intangible asset and the expected future cash flow to be derived from the intangible asset. We amortize intangible assets with finite lives in accordance with their estimated projected cash flows.
We evaluate long-lived intangible and tangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment are present and undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount, then we determine the fair value of the assets and compare it to the carrying value. If the fair value is less than the carrying value, then we reduce the carrying value to the estimated fair value and record an impairment loss in the period it is identified.

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We did not recognize any impairments of long-lived intangible and tangible assets in the year ended December 31, 2015.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, we determined that a portion of an internally developed software tool would not meet our needs following the acquisition of Constant Contact, resulting in an impairment charge of $2.0 million which was recorded in engineering and development expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss in our web presence segment.

Additionally, we recognized an impairment charge of $4.9 million for technology assets related to Webzai Ltd, or Webzai, which was recorded in engineering and development expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss in our web presence segment.
Indefinite life intangibles include domain names that are available for sale which are recorded at cost to acquire. These assets are not being amortized and are being tested for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstance indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. When a domain name is sold, we record the cost of the domain in cost of revenue.
Acquired IPR&D represents the fair value assigned to research and development that we acquire that has not been completed at the date of acquisition. Acquired IPR&D is capitalized as an intangible asset and reviewed on a quarterly basis to determine future use. Any impairment loss of acquired IPR&D is charged to expense in the period the impairment is identified. Upon commercialization, the acquired fair value of the IPR&D will be reclassified to developed technology and amortized over its useful life. No such impairment losses were identified during the year ended December 31 2015.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, we incurred total charges of $2.2 million to impair certain acquired IPR&D relating to projects that were abandoned in favor of other projects. This consisted of a charge of $1.4 million and $0.8 million to impair certain acquired IPR&D projects from the Webzai and AppMachine acquisitions, respectively.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized an impairment charge of $13.8 million relating to certain domain name intangible assets acquired in 2014, as the intangible assets were producing diminished cash flows. In addition, we recognized an impairment charge of $4.9 million primarily relating to developed technology and customer relationships associated with our acquisition of the Directi web presence business in 2014. This impairment also resulted from diminished cash flows associated with these intangible assets.

Derivative Instruments
Accounting Standards Codification 815, or ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, provides the disclosure requirements for derivatives and hedging activities with the intent to provide users of financial statements with an enhanced understanding of: (a) how and why an entity uses derivative instruments, (b) how the entity accounts for derivative instruments and related hedged items, and (c) how derivative instruments and related hedged items affect an entity’s financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Further, qualitative disclosures are required that explain our objectives and strategies for using derivatives, as well as quantitative disclosures about the fair value of and gains and losses on derivative instruments, and disclosures about credit-risk-related contingent features in derivative instruments.
As required by ASC 815, we record all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether we have elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges. Derivatives may also be designated as hedges of the foreign currency exposure of a net investment in a foreign operation. Hedge accounting generally provides for the matching of the timing of gain or loss recognition on the hedging instrument with the recognition of the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge or the earnings effect of the hedged forecasted transactions in a cash flow hedge. We may enter into derivative contracts that are intended to economically hedge certain of our risks, even though hedge accounting does not apply or we elect not to apply hedge accounting.
In accordance with the FASB’s fair value measurement guidance in Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-04, or ASU 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), we made an accounting policy election to measure the credit risk of our derivative financial instruments that are subject to master netting agreements on a net basis by counterparty portfolio.

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Business Combinations
We account for business acquisitions using the purchase method of accounting, in accordance with which assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their respective fair values at the acquisition date. The fair value of the consideration paid, including contingent consideration, is assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their respective fair values. Goodwill represents excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Significant judgments are used in determining fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as intangibles and their estimated useful lives. Fair value and useful life determinations are based on, among other factors, estimates of future expected cash flows, royalty cost savings and appropriate discount rates used in computing present values. These judgments may materially impact the estimates used in allocating acquisition date fair values to assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as our current and future operating results. Actual results may vary from these estimates which may result in adjustments to goodwill and acquisition date fair values of assets and liabilities during a measurement period or upon a final determination of asset and liability fair values, whichever occurs first. Adjustments to fair values of assets and liabilities made after the end of the measurement period are recorded within our operating results.
Changes in the fair value of a contingent consideration resulting from a change in the underlying inputs are recognized in results of operations until the arrangement is settled.
Depreciation and Amortization
We purchase or build the servers we place in our data centers, one of which we own and the remainder of which we occupy pursuant to various lease or co-location arrangements. We also purchase the computer equipment that is used by our support and sales teams and employees in our offices. We capitalize the build-out of our facilities as leasehold improvements. Cost of revenue includes depreciation on data center equipment and support infrastructure. We include depreciation in general and administrative expense, which includes depreciation on office equipment and leasehold improvements.
Amortization expense consists of expense related to the amortization of intangible long-lived assets. In connection with our acquisitions, we allocate fair value to acquired long-lived intangible assets, which include subscriber relationships, trade names and developed technology. We use estimates and valuation techniques to determine the estimated useful lives of our intangible assets and amortize them to cost of revenue.
Income Taxes
We provide for income taxes in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 740, or ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry-forwards. We measure deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that we expect to apply to taxable income in the years in which we expect those temporary differences to be recovered or settled. We recognize the effect of changes in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities in the period that includes the enactment date.
ASC 740 clarifies the accounting for income taxes by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold that a tax position is required to meet before being recognized in the financial statements. We recognize the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not to be sustained. We measure recognized income tax positions at the largest amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We reflect changes in recognition or measurement in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. There were no unrecognized tax benefits in the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016. We recorded unrecognized tax benefits for uncertain tax positions of $1.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2017.
We record interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expense. We recognized no interest or penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016. We recognized immaterial interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits during the year ended December 31, 2017.

In 2015, a significant amount of our GAAP foreign losses were generated by our subsidiaries in the U.A.E. and Israel. The foreign rate differential in 2015 predominantly related to these jurisdictions. Our foreign rate differential in 2015 had a negative impact on our expected tax expense since the majority of the foreign losses are generated in jurisdictions where the statutory tax rate is lower than the U.S. statutory rate – specifically the U.A.E., which has a statutory tax rate of 0% and represents $2.4 million of our foreign losses, and Israel, which had a statutory tax rate of 26.5% and represents $2.5 million of our foreign losses.

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In 2016, a significant amount of our GAAP foreign losses were generated by our subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, U.A.E. and Israel. The foreign rate differential in 2016 predominantly related to these jurisdictions. Our foreign rate differential in 2016 had a negative impact on our expected tax expense since the majority of the foreign losses are generated in jurisdictions where the statutory tax rate is lower than the U.S. statutory rate – specifically the United Kingdom, which has a statutory tax rate of 18% and represents $43.8 million of our foreign losses, the U.A.E., which has a statutory tax rate of 0% and represents $2.1 million of our foreign losses, and Israel, which had a statutory tax rate of 25% and represents $8.3 million of our foreign losses.

In 2017, a significant amount of our GAAP foreign losses were generated by our subsidiaries in India and the Netherlands. The foreign rate differential in 2017 predominantly related to our subsidiaries in the United Kingdom. Our foreign rate differential in 2017 had a positive impact on our expected tax expense since the majority of the foreign income is generated in jurisdictions where the statutory tax rate is lower than the U.S. statutory rate - specifically the United Kingdom, which has a statutory tax rate of 18% and the Netherlands that has a statutory rate of 25%.
We describe our accounting treatment of taxes more fully in Note 14 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stock-Based Compensation Arrangements
Accounting Standards Codification 718, or ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, requires employee stock-based payments to be accounted for under the fair value method. Under this method, we are required to record compensation cost based on the estimated fair value for stock-based awards granted over the requisite service periods for the individual awards, which generally equals the vesting periods. We use the straight-line amortization method for recognizing stock-based compensation expense.
We estimate the fair value of employee stock options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the use of highly subjective estimates and assumptions. For restricted stock awards granted by us we estimate the fair value of each restricted stock award based on the closing trading price of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on the date of grant. There was no public market for our common stock prior to October 25, 2013, the date our common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, and as a result, the trading history of our common stock was limited through December 31, 2017. Therefore, we determined the volatility for options granted by us based on an analysis of reported data for a peer group of companies that issued options with substantially similar terms. The expected volatility of options granted by us has been determined using a blended average of the historical volatility measures of this peer group of companies and of the historical volatility measures of our stock. The expected life assumption is based on the “simplified method” for estimating expected term as we do not have sufficient historical option exercises to support a reasonable estimate of the expected term. The risk-free interest rate is based on a treasury instrument whose term is consistent with the expected life of the stock options. We use an expected dividend rate of zero as we currently have no history or expectation of paying dividends on our common stock.

In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The guidance simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification of excess tax benefits in the consolidated statements of cash flows. This amendment is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and early adoption is permitted.

We elected to early adopt the new guidance in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016 which required us to reflect any adjustments as of January 1, 2016, the beginning of the annual period that included the interim period of adoption. We elected to eliminate the forfeiture rate estimate and adopted the new policy to account for forfeitures in the period that they are incurred, and applied this policy on a modified retrospective basis. The impact of eliminating the forfeiture rate estimate increased stock compensation expense recorded in 2016 by $0.9 million, which included an immaterial adjustment to beginning retained earnings that we recorded through the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

Prior to January 1, 2016, we recognized the excess tax benefits of stock-based compensation expense as additional paid-in capital (“APIC”), and tax deficiencies of stock-based compensation expense in the income tax provision or as APIC to the extent that there were sufficient recognized excess tax benefits previously recognized. As a result of the prior guidance that excess tax benefits reduce taxes payable prior to being recognized as an increase in paid in capital, we had not recognized certain deferred tax assets (all tax attributes such as loss or credit carryforwards) that could be attributed to tax deductions related to equity compensation in excess of compensation recognized for financial reporting.

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Effective as of January 1, 2016, we early adopted a change in accounting policy in accordance with ASU 2016-09 to account for excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense or benefit, treated as discrete items in the reporting period in which they occur, and to recognize previously unrecognized deferred tax assets that arose directly from (or the use of which was postponed by) tax deductions related to equity compensation in excess of compensation recognized for financial reporting. No prior periods were restated as a result of this change in accounting policy as we previously maintained a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets that could be attributed to equity compensation in excess of compensation recognized for financial reporting.

Due to our net shortfall position at the time of adoption, the new standard resulted in the recognition of income tax expense in our provision for income taxes of $0.9 million rather than paid-in capital for the year ended December 31, 2016.  The adoption of ASU 2016-09 could create volatility in our future effective tax rate.

Segment Information

From the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016 through the third quarter of fiscal year 2017, we had two reportable segments, web presence and email marketing. We have experienced significant changes in our management structure during fiscal year 2017, including a change in our chief executive officer. Our leadership structure has been revised to centralize management of certain domain-leading brands in order to improve overall performance. As a result of these management changes, we have revised our internal financial reporting structure, and broken our former web presence segment into two reportable segments, web presence and domain. Our third reportable segment, email marketing, remains unchanged.

The products and services included in our three reportable segments are as follows:
Web Presence. Our web presence segment consists primarily of our web hosting brands, such as Bluehost and HostGator, and related products such as domain names, website security, website design tools and services, and e-commerce products.
Domain. Our domain segment consists of domain-focused brands such as Domain.com, ResellerClub and LogicBoxes as well as certain web hosting brands that are under common management with our domain-focused brands. This segment sells domain names and domain management services to resellers and end users, as well as premium domain names, and also generates advertising revenue from domain name parking. It also resells domain names and domain management services to our web presence segment.
Email Marketing. Our email marketing segment consists of Constant Contact email marketing tools and related products and our SinglePlatform digital storefront solution.

Our segments share certain resources, primarily related to sales and marketing, engineering and general and administrative functions. We allocate these costs to each respective segment based on a consistently applied methodology.


Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of future results.
 

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Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
(in thousands)
Revenue
$
741,315

 
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

Cost of revenue
425,035

 
583,991

 
603,930

Gross profit
316,280

 
527,151

 
572,937

Operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
145,419

 
303,511

 
277,460

Engineering and development
26,707

 
87,601

 
78,772

General and administrative
81,386

 
143,095

 
163,972

Impairment of goodwill

 

 
12,129

Transaction expenses
9,582

 
32,284

 
773

Total operating expense
263,094

 
566,491

 
533,106

Income (loss) from operations
53,186

 
(39,340
)
 
39,831

Other income (expense)
(52,974
)
 
(150,450
)
 
(157,006
)
Income (loss) before income taxes and equity earnings of unconsolidated entities
212

 
(189,790
)
 
(117,175
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
11,342

 
(109,858
)
 
(17,281
)
Loss before equity earnings of unconsolidated entities
(11,130
)
 
(79,932
)
 
(99,894
)
Equity loss (income) of unconsolidated entities, net of tax
14,640

 
1,297

 
(110
)
Net loss
$
(25,770
)
 
$
(81,229
)
 
$
(99,784
)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest

 
(8,398
)
 
7,524

Net loss attributable to Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc.
$
(25,770
)
 
$
(72,831
)
 
$
(107,308
)
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2017
Revenue
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Change
 
2016
 
2017
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

 
$
65,725

 
6
%
Revenue increased by $65.7 million, or 6%, from $1,111.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $1,176.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Almost all of this increase, or $74.4 million, is attributable to increased revenue from our email marketing segment, partially offset by slight declines in revenue from our web presence and domain segments.
Our revenue is generated primarily from our products and services delivered on a subscription basis, which include web hosting, domains, website builders, search engine marketing and other similar services. We also generate non-subscription revenue through premium domain sales and domain parking (which we refer to as domain monetization) and marketing development funds. Non-subscription revenue was unchanged at $39.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and represented 4% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016, and 3% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Our web presence segment revenue decreased by $6.7 million, or 1%, from $648.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $642.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This decrease was primarily attributable to a decline in revenue from non-strategic brands.

Our email marketing segment revenue increased by $74.4 million, or 23%, from $326.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $401.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to the inclusion of Constant Contact revenue for an entire year in fiscal 2017, which increased revenue by $41.1 million, and to the negative $15.2 million impact of the Constant Contact purchase adjustment during 2016. Excluding these factors, revenue from our

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email marketing segment grew by approximately $18.1 million, which related to price increases and to a lesser extent, growth in services delivered to existing customers.

Our domain segment revenue decreased by $2.0 million from $135.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $133.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to a reduction in domain monetization revenue.

Cost of Revenue
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2017
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of revenue
$
583,991

 
53
%
 
$
603,930

 
51
%
 
$
19,939

 
3
%
Cost of revenue increased by $19.9 million, or 3%, from $584.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $603.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to an $18.7 million impairment charge incurred in our domain segment and, to a lesser extent, to increased cost of revenue in our web presence segment. These factors were partially offset by decreased cost of revenue in our email marketing segment.
Our cost of revenue contains a significant portion of non-cash expenses, in particular amortization expense for the intangible assets we have acquired through our acquisitions. The following table sets forth the significant non-cash components of cost of revenue.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2017
 
(in thousands)
Amortization expense
$
143,562

 
$
140,354

Depreciation expense
48,120

 
46,235

Stock-based compensation expense
5,855

 
6,135

Cost of revenue for our web presence segment increased by $3.7 million, or 1%, from $339.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $343.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was due to numerous factors, including: increased support and restructuring costs in connection with the customer support consolidation, increased domain registration costs, and higher depreciation stock-based compensation, and data center costs. These costs increases were partially offset by lower amortization expense of $12.5 million.
Cost of revenue for our email marketing segment decreased by $7.3 million, or 5%, from $153.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $146.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was attributable to approximately $14.4 million in cost savings as a result of the Constant Contact 2016 restructuring plan, decreased restructuring charges of $6.9 million and lower depreciation expense of $5.4 million, partially offset by higher amortization expense of $9.8 million and other net cost increases of $9.6 million, most of which were attributable to the inclusion of a full year of Constant Contact operations during the year ended December 31, 2017.
Cost of revenue for our domain segment increased by $23.6 million, or 26%, from $90.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $114.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to an impairment charge of $18.7 million due to diminished cash flows from intangible assets, primarily domain monetization related assets, and increased support and data center costs, primarily due to our international expansion efforts.

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Gross Profit
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2017
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Gross profit
$
527,151

 
47
%
 
$
572,937

 
49
%
 
$
45,786

 
9
%
Gross profit increased by $45.8 million, or 9%, from $527.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $572.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to an $81.7 million increase in the gross profit contribution from our email marketing segment, offset by $18.7 million in impairment charges relating to intangible assets in our domain segment, $5.1 million in increased support costs (including duplicate costs incurred due to our customer support consolidation), $4.7 million in increased domain registration costs and $1.7 million in increased data center costs. Our gross profit as a percentage of revenue increased by 2 percentage points from 47% for the year ended December 31, 2016 to 49% for the year ended December 31, 2017, mainly due to the performance of our email marketing segment.

The following table sets forth gross profit and the significant non-cash components of cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue: 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2017
 
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue
$
1,111,142

 
$
1,176,867

Gross profit
527,151

 
572,937

Gross profit % of revenue
47
%
 
49
%
Amortization expense % of revenue
13
%
 
12
%
Depreciation expense % of revenue
4
%
 
4
%
Stock-based compensation expense % of revenue
*

 
*

*
Less than 1%.

Our web presence segment gross profit decreased by $10.4 million from $309.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $298.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to incremental support costs from the customer support consolidation and increased domain registration, restructuring and stock-based compensation costs, offset by lower amortization of intangible assets. Our web presence gross profit as a percentage of revenue was 47% for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 48% in the prior year.

Our email marketing segment gross profit increased by $81.7 million from $173.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $254.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to the 2016 Constant Contact purchase accounting adjustment, which decreased revenue by $15.2 million in 2016, cost reductions implemented in fiscal year 2016 which resulted in $14.4 million of lower costs in fiscal year 2017, lower restructuring charges of $6.9 million, and lower depreciation expense of $5.4 million, with the balance of the increase relating primarily to the inclusion of Constant Contact for a full twelve months for fiscal year 2017.

Our domain segment gross profit decreased by $25.6 million from $44.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $19.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. This reduction was primarily due to the impairment charge of $18.7 million described above.
Operating Expense
 

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Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2017
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of
Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing
$
303,511

 
27
%
 
$
277,460

 
24
%
 
$
(26,051
)
 
(9
)%
Engineering and development
87,601

 
8
%
 
78,772

 
7
%
 
(8,829
)
 
(10
)%
General and administrative
143,095

 
13
%
 
163,972

 
14
%
 
20,877

 
15
 %
Impairment of goodwill

 
%
 
12,129

 
1
%
 
12,129

 
NA

Transaction expenses
32,284

 
3
%
 
773

 
%
 
(31,511
)
 
(98
)%
Total
$
566,491

 
51
%
 
$
533,106

 
46
%

$
(33,385
)
 
(6
)%
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expense decreased by $26.1 million, or 9%, from $303.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $277.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Of this decrease, $31.9 million was due to lower marketing expense in our web presence segment, primarily due to decreased marketing investments in gateway products, partially offset by an increase of $3.9 million and $1.7 million in our domain segment and email marketing segment, respectively.

Sales and marketing expense for our web presence segment decr